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OCR for page 80
Review of Closure Plans for the Baseline Incineration Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Appendix B Safety and Environmental Metrics Employed by Private Companies Surveyed for This Report Table B-1, which compiles the safety and environmental metrics used by the private companies surveyed for this report, is reprinted from the National Research Council report Evaluation of Safety and Environmental Metrics for Potential Application at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2009). TABLE B-1 Safety and Environmental Metrics Employed by Private Companies Surveyed for This Report Measure Area Definition Type Comments Number of recordable injuries (RIs) or illnesses Personal safety Lagging Per OSHA requirements Number of lost workday cases (LWCs) Personal safety Lagging Per OSHA requirements Contractor injury or illness rate Personal safety Number of RIs per number of work hours × 200,000 Lagging RMTC, RWC, and DAWC (all OSHA definitions) Company injury or illness rate Personal safety Number of RIs per number of work hours × 200,000 Lagging RMTC, RWC, and DAWC (all OSHA definitions) Near miss Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Number of unsafe conditions or events that almost injured someone but didn’t or almost spilled something but didn’t Leading Can identify unsafe conditions, safety incidents that could have been more serious in different circumstances, etc. Corrective and preventive actions Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Proportion of corrective and preventive actions closed on time to total number of action items Leading Percent of action items related to employee health and safety (EH&S) incidents that have been closed by the due date Behavior-based process (BBP) observation Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Number of observations of behavior as part of a behavior-based safety program Leading Total number of observations made of a work group in a given time Percent safe BBP observations Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Number of safe behaviors/total behaviors Leading The percentage of safe behaviors should be less than 100 percent since your program should be looking at behaviors that you want to change and at behaviors that you are getting much better at
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Review of Closure Plans for the Baseline Incineration Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Measure Area Definition Type Comments BBP observation—analysis to drive behavior change Personal safety Number of analyses performed Leading Should analyze the antecedents and consequences of an unwanted behavior at least quarterly. Behavior might be improved by adjusting an antecedent. BBP observation—driving behavior change Personal safety Number of critical behaviors that reached habit strength Leading Try to drive at least one behavior to habit strength per year by adjusting the antecedents and consequences of that behavior. Procedure use Personal/process safety Number of critical procedures used/number of critical procedure required tasks performed Leading Can be daily, weekly, or monthly depending on the size of the organization. Tasks that require a critical procedure are defined by the facility. Quality of root cause investigation (RCI) Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Number of minimum quality criteria met for the RCIs in a given period Leading RCI minimum criteria are defined by the company. Pretask hazard assessment participation Personal safety Number of pretask hazard assessments performed Leading Assessment can be conducted per person or per work group, weekly or monthly. Performance tracking on permits Personal safety Number of defects found per permit Leading Permit documentation is audited and any mistake or omission is a defect (safe work permit/isolation of energy/confined space entry). Training timeliness Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Required training completed on time—not overdue Leading Overdue EH&S training is a sign of a slipping safety culture and priority. Compliance task tool Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Number of required compliance tasks overdue/total number of required compliance tasks Leading Overdue safety compliance tasks are a sign of slipping safety culture and priority. An example of these tasks is fire extinguisher inspections. Severity rate Personal safety Number of (RMTC × 1) + (RWC × 3) + (DAWC × 9) + (fatalities × 27) per 200,000 work hours Lagging Gives a weighted rate DAWC count Personal safety Number of DAWCs Lagging DAWC rate Personal safety Number of DAWC per 200,000 work hours Lagging Loss of primary containment (LOPC) count Personal safety Number of LOPCs Lagging For example, leaks, breaks, and spills Severe LOPC (Categories 1,1A, and 2A) Personal/environmental/process safety Number of Category 1, 1A, and 2A LOPCs Lagging Category 1 is any loss of primary containment resulting in the release of >5,000 lb flammable chemical. Category 1A is a release causing a DAWC. Category 2A is a spill resulting in a RI. Category 4 LOPC count Personal/environmental/process safety Number of Category 4 LOPCs Leading Category 4 is a minor spill of <100 lb that has no measurable impact on people or the environment. Ratio of Category 4 LOPC to Categories 1, 2, and 3 LOPCs Personal safety Ratio of Category 4 LOPCs to all other categories of LOPCs Leading Try to achieve a 40:1 ratio in order to find the small spills and fix them before they become larger spills. (Category 2 is a loss of primary containment with a release of >1,000 lb or an RMTC or a RWC (2A). Category 3 is any LOPC that loses >100 lb of chemical or 1,000 lb of dry inert solids).
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Review of Closure Plans for the Baseline Incineration Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Measure Area Definition Type Comments Number of process safety events Process safety Number of events within a specified time period. The severity of events may be low, medium, or high. Both lagging and leading For near misses, it’s a leading indicator. Number of fatality potential events Personal/transportation/process safety Number of such events within a specified time period Lagging Measure progress in addressing high-potential events. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) count Transportation Number of MVAs Lagging An MVA is a motor vehicle accident resulting in personal injury or at least $500 in damage. MVA rate Transportation Number of MVAs per million miles driven Lagging Includes all miles driven from company owned, leased, or rented vehicles and miles driven on company business from personal vehicles Number of preventable accidents or number of preventable accidents per unit time or distance Transportation Number of preventable product-carrying vehicle accidents or a rate based on this number Lagging Number of high-severity accidents or number of high-severity accidents per unit time or distance Transportation Number of high-severity product-carrying vehicle accidents or a rate based on this number Lagging Number of rollovers/rollover rate Transportation Number of product-carrying vehicle rollovers or a rate based on this number Lagging Energy intensity Environmental British thermal units per pound production Lagging Greenhouse gas (GHG) energy efficiency Environmental Quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated per unit of production Lagging Wastewater intensity Environmental Pounds of wastewater per pound of production Lagging Water that is treated at a wastewater treatment facility Waste intensity Environmental Pounds of waste per pound of production Lagging Material that receives end-of-pipe treatment; report as the bulk amount prior to treatment. Total waste weight Environmental Weight by type and disposal method Lagging Chemical emissions Environmental Chemical emissions (tons) Lagging Material that is released to the environment that does not receive end-of-pipe treatment (not including water). Chemical emissions exclude conventional emissions such as combustion products (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, CO2, and particulates), methane, and hydrogen. Also excluded are the “normally excluded as an emission” compounds from GEI such as nitrogen, oxygen, water, aluminum, and salts (chlorides, sulfates, hydroxides, oxides, hypochlorite, and carbonates).
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Review of Closure Plans for the Baseline Incineration Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Measure Area Definition Type Comments Priority compound emissions Environmental Priority compounds (tons) Lagging A list of priority chemicals that include persistent bioaccumulative and toxic compounds; selected known human carcinogens; selected ozone depletors; and high-volume toxic compounds Volatile organic compound emissions Environmental Volatile organic compounds (tons) Lagging Total water use Environmental Pounds or gallons water used/time period Lagging Direct GHG emissions Environmental CO2-equivalent metric tons Lagging Direct GHG emissions are those that are emitted from a company location. Direct emissions include all GHGs emitted from any on-site fugitive or air point source. Kyoto GHGs as CO2-equivalent intensity Environmental Pounds of CO2-equivalent per pound production Lagging Assessment compliance performance Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Assigned grade to each area reviewed in assessment Leading Commonly understood measure for assessing improvement in performance Percent of safety alerts completed Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety Percent completion by facilities covered by alerts Leading Drives implementation of lessons learned from safety incidents Number of potential environmental noncompliances Environmental Internally reported potential environmental noncompliances per month Leading Proactive measure of effectiveness of environmental program Number of significant environmental spills Environmental Spills per unit time Lagging Toxic release inventory on site releases Environmental Number of releases per unit time Lagging NOTE: RCI, root cause investigation; OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration; RMTC, reportable medical treatment case; RWC, restricted work case; DAWC, days away from work case; LOPC, loss of primary containment; BBP, behavior-based process; ES&H, employee safety and health; RI, recordable injury; GHG, greenhouse gas; GEI, greenhouse gas emissions. SOURCE: Data provided by Corning, Dow Chemical, Motorola, and Praxair.