Appendix B
Safety and Environmental Metrics Employed by Private Companies Surveyed for This Report

Table B-1, which compiles the safety and environmental metrics used by the private companies surveyed for this report, is reprinted from the National Research Council report Evaluation of Safety and Environmental Metrics for Potential Application at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2009).

TABLE B-1 Safety and Environmental Metrics Employed by Private Companies Surveyed for This Report

Measure

Area

Definition

Type

Comments

Number of recordable injuries (RIs) or illnesses

Personal safety

 

Lagging

Per OSHA requirements

Number of lost workday cases (LWCs)

Personal safety

 

Lagging

Per OSHA requirements

Contractor injury or illness rate

Personal safety

Number of RIs per number of work hours × 200,000

Lagging

RMTC, RWC, and DAWC (all OSHA definitions)

Company injury or illness rate

Personal safety

Number of RIs per number of work hours × 200,000

Lagging

RMTC, RWC, and DAWC (all OSHA definitions)

Near miss

Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety

Number of unsafe conditions or events that almost injured someone but didn’t or almost spilled something but didn’t

Leading

Can identify unsafe conditions, safety incidents that could have been more serious in different circumstances, etc.

Corrective and preventive actions

Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety

Proportion of corrective and preventive actions closed on time to total number of action items

Leading

Percent of action items related to employee health and safety (EH&S) incidents that have been closed by the due date

Behavior-based process (BBP) observation

Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety

Number of observations of behavior as part of a behavior-based safety program

Leading

Total number of observations made of a work group in a given time

Percent safe BBP observations

Personal/environmental/transportation/process safety

Number of safe behaviors/total behaviors

Leading

The percentage of safe behaviors should be less than 100 percent since your program should be looking at behaviors that you want to change and at behaviors that you are getting much better at



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appendix B safety and environmental metrics employed by Private companies surveyed for This report Table B-1, which compiles the safety and environmental metrics used by the private companies surveyed for this report, is reprinted from the National Research Council report Evaluation of Safety and Environmental Metrics for Potential Application at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2009). TABLE B-1 Safety and Environmental Metrics Employed by Private Companies Surveyed for This Report Measure Area Definition Type Comments Number of recordable Personal safety Lagging Per OSHA requirements injuries (RIs) or illnesses Number of lost workday Personal safety Lagging Per OSHA requirements cases (LWCs) Contractor injury or Personal safety Number of RIs per number Lagging RMTC, RWC, and DAWC (all OSHA illness rate of work hours × 200,000 definitions) Company injury or Personal safety Number of RIs per number Lagging RMTC, RWC, and DAWC (all OSHA illness rate of work hours × 200,000 definitions) Near miss Personal/environmental/ Number of unsafe Leading Can identify unsafe conditions, safety transportation/process conditions or events that incidents that could have been more serious safety almost injured someone in different circumstances, etc. but didn’t or almost spilled something but didn’t Corrective and Personal/environmental/ Proportion of corrective Leading Percent of action items related to employee preventive actions transportation/process and preventive actions health and safety (EH&S) incidents that safety closed on time to total have been closed by the due date number of action items Behavior-based process Personal/environmental/ Number of observations Leading Total number of observations made of a (BBP) observation transportation/process of behavior as part of a work group in a given time safety behavior-based safety program Percent safe BBP Personal/environmental/ Number of safe behaviors/ Leading The percentage of safe behaviors should be observations transportation/ process total behaviors less than 100 percent since your program safety should be looking at behaviors that you want to change and at behaviors that you are getting much better at 0

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 APPENDIX B TABLE B-1 Continued Measure Area Definition Type Comments BBP observation— Personal safety Number of analyses Leading Should analyze the antecedents and analysis to drive performed consequences of an unwanted behavior at behavior change least quarterly. Behavior might be improved by adjusting an antecedent. BBP observation— Personal safety Number of critical Leading Try to drive at least one behavior to driving behavior change behaviors that reached habit strength per year by adjusting the habit strength antecedents and consequences of that behavior. Procedure use Personal/process safety Number of critical Leading Can be daily, weekly, or monthly depending procedures used/number of on the size of the organization. Tasks that critical procedure required require a critical procedure are defined by tasks performed the facility. Quality of root cause Personal/environmental/ Number of minimum Leading RCI minimum criteria are defined by the investigation (RCI) transportation/process quality criteria met for the company. safety RCIs in a given period Pretask hazard Personal safety Number of pretask hazard Leading Assessment can be conducted per person or assessment participation assessments performed per work group, weekly or monthly. Performance tracking on Personal safety Number of defects found Leading Permit documentation is audited and any permits per permit mistake or omission is a defect (safe work permit/isolation of energy/confined space entry). Training timeliness Personal/environmental/ Required training Leading Overdue EH&S training is a sign of a transportation/process completed on time—not slipping safety culture and priority. safety overdue Compliance task tool Personal/environmental/ Number of required Leading Overdue safety compliance tasks are a sign transportation/process compliance tasks overdue/ of slipping safety culture and priority. An safety total number of required example of these tasks is fire extinguisher compliance tasks inspections. Severity rate Personal safety Number of (RMTC × 1) Lagging Gives a weighted rate + (RWC × 3) + (DAWC × 9) + (fatalities × 27) per 200,000 work hours DAWC count Personal safety Number of DAWCs Lagging DAWC rate Personal safety Number of DAWC per Lagging 200,000 work hours Loss of primary Personal safety Number of LOPCs Lagging For example, leaks, breaks, and spills containment (LOPC) count Severe LOPC Personal/environmental/ Number of Category 1, 1A, Lagging Category 1 is any loss of primary (Categories 1,1A, and process safety and 2A LOPCs containment resulting in the release of 2A) >5,000 lb flammable chemical. Category 1A is a release causing a DAWC. Category 2A is a spill resulting in a RI. Category 4 LOPC count Personal/environmental/ Number of Category 4 Leading Category 4 is a minor spill of <100 lb that process safety LOPCs has no measurable impact on people or the environment. Ratio of Category 4 Personal safety Ratio of Category 4 Leading Try to achieve a 40:1 ratio in order to find LOPC to Categories 1, 2, LOPCs to all other the small spills and fix them before they and 3 LOPCs categories of LOPCs become larger spills. (Category 2 is a loss of primary containment with a release of >1,000 lb or an RMTC or a RWC (2A). Category 3 is any LOPC that loses >100 lb of chemical or 1,000 lb of dry inert solids). Continued

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 REVIEW OF CLOSURE PLANS FOR THE BASELINE INCINERATION CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL FACILITIES TABLE B-1 Continued Measure Area Definition Type Comments Number of process safety Process safety Number of events within a Both lagging For near misses, it’s a leading indicator. events specified time period. The and leading severity of events may be low, medium, or high. Number of fatality Personal/transportation/ Number of such events Lagging Measure progress in addressing high- potential events process safety within a specified time potential events. period Motor vehicle accident Transportation Number of MVAs Lagging An MVA is a motor vehicle accident (MVA) count resulting in personal injury or at least $500 in damage. MVA rate Transportation Number of MVAs per Lagging Includes all miles driven from company million miles driven owned, leased, or rented vehicles and miles driven on company business from personal vehicles Number of preventable Transportation Number of preventable Lagging accidents or number of product-carrying vehicle preventable accidents per accidents or a rate based unit time or distance on this number Number of high-severity Transportation Number of high-severity Lagging accidents or number of product-carrying vehicle high-severity accidents accidents or a rate based per unit time or distance on this number Number of rollovers/ Transportation Number of product- Lagging rollover rate carrying vehicle rollovers or a rate based on this number Energy intensity Environmental British thermal units per Lagging pound production Greenhouse gas (GHG) Environmental Quantity of carbon dioxide Lagging energy efficiency (CO2) generated per unit of production Wastewater intensity Environmental Pounds of wastewater per Lagging Water that is treated at a wastewater pound of production treatment facility Waste intensity Environmental Pounds of waste per pound Lagging Material that receives end-of-pipe treatment; of production report as the bulk amount prior to treatment. Total waste weight Environmental Weight by type and Lagging disposal method Chemical emissions Environmental Chemical emissions (tons) Lagging Material that is released to the environment that does not receive end-of-pipe treatment (not including water). Chemical emissions exclude conventional emissions such as combustion products (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, CO2, and particulates), methane, and hydrogen. Also excluded are the “normally excluded as an emission” compounds from GEI such as nitrogen, oxygen, water, aluminum, and salts (chlorides, sulfates, hydroxides, oxides, hypochlorite, and carbonates).

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 APPENDIX B TABLE B-1 Continued Measure Area Definition Type Comments Priority compound Environmental Priority compounds (tons) Lagging A list of priority chemicals that include emissions persistent bioaccumulative and toxic compounds; selected known human carcinogens; selected ozone depletors; and high-volume toxic compounds Volatile organic Environmental Volatile organic Lagging compound emissions compounds (tons) Total water use Environmental Pounds or gallons water Lagging used/time period Direct GHG emissions Environmental CO2-equivalent metric tons Lagging Direct GHG emissions are those that are emitted from a company location. Direct emissions include all GHGs emitted from any on-site fugitive or air point source. Kyoto GHGs as CO2- Environmental Pounds of CO2-equivalent Lagging equivalent intensity per pound production Assessment compliance Personal/environmental/ Assigned grade to Leading Commonly understood measure for performance transportation/process each area reviewed in assessing improvement in performance safety assessment Percent of safety alerts Personal/environmental/ Percent completion by Leading Drives implementation of lessons learned completed transportation/process facilities covered by alerts from safety incidents safety Number of potential Environmental Internally reported Leading Proactive measure of effectiveness of environmental potential environmental environmental program noncompliances noncompliances per month Number of significant Environmental Spills per unit time Lagging environmental spills Toxic release inventory Environmental Number of releases per Lagging on site releases unit time NOTE: RCI, root cause investigation; OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration; RMTC, reportable medical treatment case; RWC, restricted work case; DAWC, days away from work case; LOPC, loss of primary containment; BBP, behavior-based process; ES&H, employee safety and health; RI, recordable injury; GHG, greenhouse gas; GEI, greenhouse gas emissions. SOURCE: Data provided by Corning, Dow Chemical, Motorola, and Praxair.