Review of Closure Plans for the Baseline Incineration Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities

Committee to Review and Assess Closure Plans for the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility and the Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Committee to Review and Assess Closure Plans for the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility and the Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

OCR for page R1
The NaTioNal academies Press 500 Fifth street, N.W. Washington, dc 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-09-C-0081 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Front cover—Upper left: Demolition of filter housing at Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Maryland). Lower, from left: Scabbling (removal of a layer of concrete) at Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System; tented titanium reactor at Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Maryland); and pressure washing at Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Indiana). Images superimposed on a diagram of potentially contaminated areas, to be enclosed by tents, processing bay, Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Indiana). Back cover—Mass demolition of ton container cleanout building, Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Maryland). Photographs courtesy of U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-15858-9 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-15858-3 Limited copies of this report are available from Additional copies are available from Board on Army Science and Technology The National Academies Press National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 940 Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20001 Washington, DC 20055 (202) 334-3118 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu Internet, Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sci - ences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern - ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
commiTTee To revieW aNd assess closure PlaNs For The Tooele chemical ageNT disPosal FaciliTy aNd The chemical ageNT aNd muNiTioNs disPosal sysTem PETER B. LEDERMAN, Chair, Hazardous Substance Management Research Center (retired), New Providence, New Jersey GARy S. GROENEWOLD, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho DEBORAH L. GRUBBE, Operations and Safety Solutions, LLC, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania JOHN R. HOWELL (NAE), University of Texas, Austin TODD A. KIMMELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. KALATHIL E. PHILIPOSE, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (retired), Ontario, Canada LOUIS T. PHILLIPS, Resource: PM, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania DANNy D. REIBLE (NAE), University of Texas, Austin W. LEIGH SHORT, Woodward Clyde & Associates (retired), Williamstown, Massachusetts LEONARD M. SIEGEL, Center for Public Environmental Oversight, Mountain View, California DAVID A. SKIVEN, Worldwide Facilities, General Motors Corporation (retired), Brighton, Michigan SHERyL A. TELFORD, DuPont Corporate Remediation Group Director, Wilmington, Delaware LAWRENCE J. WASHINGTON, The Dow Chemical Company (retired), Midland, Michigan staff NANCy T. SCHULTE, Study Director HARRISON PANNELLA, Senior Program Officer NIA D. JOHNSON, Senior Research Associate ALICE V. WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant v

OCR for page R1
Board oN army scieNce aNd TechNology ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Chair, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Connecticut DENNIS J. REIMER, Vice Chair, (USA retired), Arlington, Virginia DUANE ADAMS, Carnegie Mellon University (retired), Arlington, Virginia ILESANMI ADESIDA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign RAJ AGGARWAL, University of Iowa, Coralville EDWARD C. BRADy, Strategic Perspectives, Inc., McLean, Virginia L. REGINALD BROTHERS, BAE Systems, Arlington, Virginia JAMES CARAFANO, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. W. PETER CHERRy, Science Applications International Corporation, Ann Arbor, Michigan RONALD P. FUCHS, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington W. HARVEy GRAy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CARL GUERRERI, Electronic Warfare Associates, Inc., Herndon, Virginia JOHN H. HAMMOND, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Fairfax, Virginia M. FREDERICK HAWTHORNE, University of Missouri–Columbia RANDALL W. HILL, University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey, California MARy JANE IRWIN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park ELLIOTT D. KIEFF, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts LARRy LEHOWICz, Quantum Research International, Arlington, Virginia DAVID M. MADDOx, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM L. MELVIN, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia ROBIN MURPHy, Texas A&M University, College Station RICHARD R. PAUL, Bellevue, Washington JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MARK J.T. SMITH, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana MICHAEL A. STROSCIO, University of Illinois, Chicago JUDITH L. SWAIN, University of California San Diego, La Jolla JOSEPH yAKOVAC, Hampton, Virginia staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator vi

OCR for page R1
Preface For over half a century the United States has maintained As the chair of the committee, I wish to express my a stockpile of chemical weapons and bulk agent at Army appreciation to my fellow committee members for their depots distributed around the country. This stockpile con- contributions to the preparation of this report, which tained approximately 30,000 tons of chemical nerve agents included interviewing CMA and contractor staff and GB and Vx, and several forms of mustard agent. These stakeholders, visiting sites, and collecting and analyz- agents were contained in about 3 million munitions of vari- ing scores of planning documents in a short time. Every ous types as well as in bulk storage containers. member of the committee made significant contribu- The U.S. Army has been engaged in destroying this tions to the writing of the report. stockpile since 1986. On July 1, 2010, the U.S. Army’s The committee in turn is grateful to the many CMA Chemical Materials Agency (CMA) announced that 75 staff members and the prime contractor, the URS Cor- percent of the nation’s stockpile had been destroyed. poration, for making themselves readily available, for This work has taken place at nine chemical agent their extensive efforts to ensure that data were avail- destruction facilities. Five of these used incineration able in a clear format, and for ensuring that all of the technology. The first of these, the Johnston Atoll Chem- committee’s questions were answered. All this was ical Agent Disposal System, completed its mission in done in spite of their many other duties. The committee 2000. It was subsequently closed and dismantled. The also greatly appreciates the assistance of the NRC staff other four incineration-based chemical agent destruc- who assisted in the fact-finding activities, carried on tion facilities and a related testing facility will be finish- significant research in support of the report, and were ing their missions in the next two years, and prepara- instrumental in the production of the report. tions are being made for the start of closure operations. The Board on Army Science and Technology (BAST) An examination of the means for properly planning for members listed on page vi were not asked to endorse the safe and efficient closure of these facilities is the the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor subject of this study, and it is the charge given to the did they review the final draft of this report before committee by the director of the CMA. The statement its release, although board members with appropriate of task is shown in Chapter 1 on pages 7 and 8. expertise may be nominated to serve as formal mem- The first of the remaining four facilities to proceed bers of the study committees or as report reviewers. with agent disposal, the Tooele Chemical Agent Dis- posal Facility (Utah), began operations in 1996, fol- lowed by chemical agent disposal facilities in Anniston, Peter B. Lederman, Ph.D., Chair Alabama, in 2003; Umatilla, Oregon, in 2004; and Pine Committee to Review and Assess Closure Bluff, Arkansas, in 2005. This study evaluates the clo- Plans for the Tooele Chemical Agent sure planning and makes recommendations regarding Disposal Facility and the Chemical closure activities. Agent Munitions Disposal System vii

OCR for page R1
acknowledgment of reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by indi- Charles E. Kolb, Aerodyne Research, Inc., viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and techni- George W. Parshall, NAS, E.I. du Pont de Nemours cal expertise, in accordance with procedures approved & Company (retired), by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report William J. Rogers, Tennessee Valley Authority, Review Committee. The purpose of this independent William J. Walsh, Pepper Hamilton, LLP, and review is to provide candid and critical comments Charles F. zukoski, NAE, University of Illinois at that will assist the institution in making its published Urbana-Champaign. report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, Although the reviewers listed above have provided and responsiveness to the study charge. The review many constructive comments and suggestions, they comments and draft manuscript remain confidential were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recom- to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We mendations nor did they see the final draft of the report wish to thank the following individuals for their review before its release. The review of this report was over- of this report: seen by Hyla Napadensky. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making certain that an independent Joan B. Berkowitz, Farkas Berkowitz & Company, examination of this report was carried out in accor- Jan Beyea, Consulting in the Public Interest, dance with institutional procedures and that all review Elisabeth M. Drake, NAE, MIT Laboratory for comments were carefully considered. Responsibility Energy and the Environment, for the final content of this report rests entirely with the Harold K. Forsen, NAE, Bechtel Corporation authoring committee and the institution. (retired), viii

OCR for page R1
contents SUMMARy 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 Facilities Covered in This Report, 6 JACADS Closure, 7 Committee Letter Report, 7 Statement of Task, 7 The Committee’s Approach, 8 Structure of the Report, 8 References, 9 2 OVERALL CLOSURE PLANNING FOR BASELINE FACILITIES 10 Background, 10 Programmatic Planning, 10 Key Parameters, Metrics, and Goals—The Army’s Definition of Success, 10 Essential Program Elements and Army Policy, 14 Facility-Specific Closure Planning, 15 Safety, 16 Personnel, 17 Public Participation, 17 Regulatory Drivers and Work Planning for Compliance, 18 Future Use and Closure End-Use Vision, 18 Documentation of Site History, 19 Selection of Decontamination Methods, 19 Demolition and Equipment/Debris Removal, 19 Cost and Schedule, 20 Closure Project Management and Closure Team, 20 References, 20 ix

OCR for page R1
x CONTENTS 3 IMPORTANT PARAMETERS FOR SUCCESSFUL CLOSURE 21 Background, 21 Key Parameters, 21 Safety, Health, and Security, 24 Maintenance, 24 Training and Development, 25 Communications, 25 Cost, 26 Schedule, 26 Environmental Compliance, 26 Management, 26 Groupings of Parameters, 27 Program Level, 27 Project Level, 27 Reference, 27 4 MANAGEMENT SySTEMS: LESSONS LEARNED PROCESS AND 28 THE eROOM TOOL Lessons Learned—A Management System, 28 The Importance of Lessons Learned, 29 Defining Lessons Learned and the Lessons Learned Process, 29 Access to the Lessons Learned Database, 32 The eRoom, 32 Reference, 34 5 REGULATORy REQUIREMENTS AFFECTING CLOSURE 35 Background, 35 General RCRA Closure Requirements, 35 State-Specific RCRA Closure Requirements, 36 The Influence of Base Realignment and Closure, 40 Programmatic Constraints, 40 Risk During Closure Versus Risk During Operations, 40 RCRA Closure Plan and Decommissioning Work Packages, 41 Reuse or Recycling of Valuable Materials, 43 State Resources, 44 Disposition of Igloos Used to Store Chemical Munitions and Waste, 45 Installation-Specific Constraints, 45 CAMDS/TOCDF, 45 PBCDF, 46 ANCDF, 46 UMCDF, 46 References, 48 6 MONITORING AND ANALyTICAL ISSUES 49 Overview of Closure Strategy, 49 Properties of Agents Significant to Closure Situations, 50 Residual Agent Measurement in Closure, 51 Sampling Followed by Extractive Analysis, 52 Unventilated Vapor Monitoring: An Alternative Approach, 53

OCR for page R1
xi CONTENTS Assessment of Monitoring Procedures, 54 Assessment of Workplace Monitoring, Ventilated Environment Configuration, 54 Assessment of Occluded Space Identification for Decontamination, 55 Assessment of Unventilated Monitoring Testing, 56 References, 58 APPENDIxES A Reprinted 2010 Letter Report 63 B Safety and Environmental Metrics Employed by Private Companies 80 Surveyed for This Report C Discussion of Hydrolysis Reactions of GB, Vx, and H 84 D Committee Meetings 87 E Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 89

OCR for page R1
Tables, Figures, and Box TaBles 2-1 Status of Closure Planning Documentation for Each Baseline Chemical Agent Disposal Facility, 11 2-2 Closure Planning Documents Completed by June 16, 2010, for Each Baseline Chemical Agent Disposal Facility, 13 3-1 Program-Level Parameters and Metrics, 22 3-2 Project-Level Parameters and Metrics for the Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities, 22 3-3 Chemical Demilitarization Site Recordable Injury Rates as of March 31, 2010, 25 6-1 Airborne Exposure Limits for GB, Vx, and H, and Ratios of Worker Protection Limit and General Population Limit to Vapor Screening Level, 55 B-1 Safety and Environmental Metrics Employed by Private Companies Surveyed for This Report, 80 Figures 1-1 Location and original size (percentage of original chemical agent stockpile) of eight con - tinental U.S. storage sites, 6 2-1 Site-specific closure planning, 16 4-1 Steps of the lessons learned process, 30 4-2 Flow sequence for lessons learned, 30 Box 4-1 Description of the CMA eRoom, 33 xii

OCR for page R1
acronyms and abbreviations ABCDF Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal EPA Environment Protection Agency Facility (Maryland) ACAMS automatic continuous air monitoring GB nerve agent (sarin) system GPL general population limit ANCA Anniston Chemical Activity (Alabama) H mustard agent ANCDF Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal HD distilled mustard agent Facility (Alabama) HT distilled mustard mixed with bis-(2-(2-chloroethylthio)ethyl) ether BAST Board on Army Science and Technology IDLH immediately dangerous to life and BRAC Base Realignment and Closure health CAC Citizens Advisory Commission JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal Disposal System System (Utah) CDF chemical agent disposal facility L lewisite CEMS continuous emissions monitoring LDR land disposal restriction system LIC liquid incinerator CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and MINICAMS Miniature Chemical Agent Monitoring Liability Act System CMA Chemical Materials Agency (U.S. Army) NECD Newport Chemical Depot (Indiana) CTUIR Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla NECDF Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Indian Reservation Facility CWC Chemical Weapons Convention NRC National Research Council DAAMS depot area air monitoring system ODEQ Oregon Department of Environmental DCD Deseret Chemical Depot Quality DWP decommissioning work package OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration xiii

OCR for page R1
xiv ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS OST occluded space team TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon UCD Umatilla Chemical Depot PBCA Pine Bluff Chemical Activity (Arkansas) UDAQ Utah Division of Air Quality PBCDF Pine Bluff Chemical Agent Disposal UDSHW Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Facility (Arkansas) Waste PCB polychlorinated biphenyl UMADRA Umatilla Army Depot Re-Use PCC permit compliance concentration Authority PMCD Program Manager for Chemical UMCD Umatilla Chemical Depot Demilitarization UMCDF Umatilla Chemical Agent Disposal PMCMA Program Manager, Chemical Materials Facility (Oregon) Agency UMT unventilated monitoring testing USACHPPM U.S. Army Center for Health RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Promotion and Preventive Act Medicine STEL short-term exposure limit VSL vapor screening level STL short-term limit Vx nerve agent TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal WCL waste control limit Facility (Utah) WPL worker population limit