NEW RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR THE NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

WORKSHOP REPORT

Committee on New Research Directions for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Mapping Science Committee

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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NEW RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR THE NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY WORKSHOP REPORT Committee on New Research Directions for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Mapping Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency under Award No. HM1582-09-C0014. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. government. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15865-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15865-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON NEW RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR THE NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY KEITH C. CLARKE, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara LUC E. ANSELIN, Arizona State University, Tempe ANNETTE J. KRYGIEL, Independent Consultant, Great Falls, Virginia CAROLYN J. MERRY, Ohio State University, Columbus SCOTT A. SANDGATHE, University of Washington, Seattle MANI SRIVASTAVA, University of California, Los Angeles JAMES J. THOMAS, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington National Research Council Staff ANNE M. LINN, Study Director LEA A. SHANLEY, Postdoctoral Fellow JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant v

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MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE KEITH C. CLARKE, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara LUC E. ANSELIN, Arizona State University, Tempe CECILIA R. ARAGON, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California BUDHENDRA L. BHADURI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee SUSAN CARSON LAMBERT, Renewable Energy Strategies, LLC, Frankfort, Kentucky LEWIS A. LAPINE, South Carolina Geodetic Survey, Columbia CAROLYN J. MERRY, Ohio State University, Columbus JAYANT SHARMA, Oracle Spatial, Nashua, New Hampshire DANIEL Z. SUI, Ohio State University, Columbus MICHAEL F. WORBOYS, University of Maine, Orono MAY YUAN, University of Oklahoma, Norman National Research Council Staff ANNE M. LINN, Study Director LEA A. SHANLEY, Postdoctoral Fellow ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant vi

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES CORALE BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy, LLC, Denver, Colorado KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID J. COWEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley ROGER M. DOWNS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHERINE H. FREEMAN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park WILLIAM L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Calcott RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, JR., Arizona State University, Tempe LOUISE H. KELLOGG, University of California, Davis ROBERT McMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Sandpoint JOAQUIN RUIZ, University of Arizona, Tucson PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego REGINAL SPILLER, Allied Energy, Houston, Texas RUSSELL STANDS-OVER-BULL, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Billings, Montana TERRY C. WALLACE, JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico HERMAN B. ZIMMERMAN, National Science Foundation (retired), Portland, Oregon National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R. de SOUZA, Director ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer MARK D. LANGE, Associate Program Officer LEA A. SHANLEY, Postdoctoral Fellow JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative and Financial Associate NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant TONYA E. FONG YEE, Senior Program Assistant vii

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In response to a request from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the National Research Council (NRC) organized a workshop to discuss new research directions for NGA. The workshop was held on May 17–19, 2010, in Washington, D.C., and engaged a group of approximately 30 researchers. Most of these individuals wrote white papers for the workshop, gave presentations, and/or served as rapporteurs for the working group sessions, and the committee is grateful for their contributions. In particular, the committee would like to thank the individuals who wrote white papers on five core areas traditionally supported by NGA: Dean Merchant, Russell Congalton, Robert McMaster, Lewis Lapine, and Luc Anselin. Their papers explained how the core areas have evolved to the present. The committee also thanks the individuals who presented the state-of-the-art in 10 topics discussed in the workshop: Kathleen Carley, Melba Crawford, Dave Ebert, Clive Fraser, Robert McMaster, Haesun Park, Antonio Sanfillipo, Cyrus Shahabi, Dru Smith, and May Yuan. Finally, the workshop would not have been successful without the important contributions of those who attended the event. Discussions of future research directions were informative, professional, and conducted in a cooperative spirit among, in large part, individuals who do not often have the opportunity to collaborate. This workshop report was prepared by an ad hoc committee and NRC staff following the workshop. It represents the discussions of workshop participants as interpreted by an ad hoc committee. This workshop report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Peggy Agouris, George Mason University Kate Beard-Tisdale, University of Maine, Orono Andrew Campbell, Dartmouth College Huan Liu, Arizona State University Chris Rizos, University of New South Wales, Australia Amitabh Varshney, University of Maryland Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse nor did they see the final draft of the workshop report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert B. Herrmann, private consultant. Appointed by the National Research Council he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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CONTENTS OVERVIEW................................................................................................................................................ 1 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 7 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 8 ........................................................................................... Overview of the Workshop, 9................................................................................................................. Organization of the Report, 10................................................................................................................ 2 NGA CORE AREAS AND CROSS-CUTTING THEMES........................................................... 11 NGA Core Areas, 11............................................................................................................................... Cross-Cutting Themes, 17 ...................................................................................................................... 3 FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS AND IMPLICATIONS.............................................................. 21 Future Research Areas, 22 ...................................................................................................................... Implications for the Scientific Infrastructure, 31 .................................................................................... Final Remarks, 31 ................................................................................................................................... REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................... 33 APPENDIXES ........................................................................................................................................... 35 A Biographical Sketches of the Committee, 35 B Presenters to the Workshop, 39 C Workshop Participants, 41 D Workshop Agenda, 43 E Research Topic Notes of Working Groups, 49 xi

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