much of scientific inquiry is grounded in a single discipline. Some examples of important cross-links are as follows:


Global warming leads to shifts in the atmospheric jet stream which increases the intensity of upwelling events off the Pacific Northwest coast resulting in more resuspension of iron-rich bottom sediments leading to increased primary productivity in the coastal ocean which in turn lowers oxygen levels in bottomwaters as blooms decay resulting in hypoxic zones.


Ocean circulation and changes in the atmospheric circulation drive the change in the type (temperature) of the water that reaches ice shelves resulting in land ice loss leading to sea level rise and eventually coastal inundation/erosion.


Atmospheric wind and temperature fields affect sea ice cover and the occurrence/extent of sea ice which in turn directly changes the radiation budget which feeds directly back to the atmospheric state.


Precipitation patterns determine the amount of snowpack which drives surface hydrology affecting the relative success of vegetation and agriculture, and people’s dependence thereupon.


Increased CO2 emissions some of which are absorbed by the oceans result in increased ocean acidity which is corrosive to marine shells and organisms that provide critical habitat and/or food sources for other organisms which will negatively impact fisheries worldwide.



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