Providing Healthy and Safe Foods As We Age

Workshop Summary

Leslie Pray, Caitlin Boon, Emily Ann Miller, and Laura Pillsbury, Rapporteurs

Food Forum

Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Providing Healthy and Safe Foods As We Age Workshop Summary Leslie Pray, Caitlin Boon, Emily Ann Miller, and Laura Pillsbury, Rapporteurs Food Forum Food and Nutrition Board

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. HHSF22301004T (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Interagency Risk Assessment Consortium); AG-3A94-P-09-0172 and OEM-09-DC-01 (U.S. Department of Agriculture), N01-OD-4-2139 (National Institutes of Health), and HHSF22301005T (Food and Drug Administration) between the National Academy of Sciences. Additional sup- port came from Abbott Laboratories, Campbell Soup, Cargill, Coca-Cola Company, ConAgra Foods, General Mills, Kellogg Company, Kraft Foods, Mars, McDonalds, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Monsanto, and PepsiCo. Any opinions, findings, conclu- sions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15883-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15883-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at www.iom.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent ad- opted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2010. Providing Healthy and Safe Foods as We Age: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” — Goethe Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNINg COMMITTEE FOR FOOD SUPPLY AND AgINg POPULATIONS1 SUSAN J. CROCKETT (Co-chair), General Mills, Minneapolis, MN STEVE gENDEL (Co-chair), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD KERRY DEARFIELD, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC gORDON L. JENSEN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA MARgARET LEAHY, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA PAMELA STARKE-REED, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Study Staff CAITLIN BOON, Study Director (through August 2010) LAURA PILLSBURY, Study Director (from August 2010) EMILY ANN MILLER, Research Associate gERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant LINDA MEYERS, Director, Food and Nutrition Board 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v

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FOOD FORUM1 MICHAEL P. DOYLE (Chair), University of Georgia, Griffin, GA MARK ANDON, ConAgra Foods Inc., Omaha, NE SUSAN BORRA, Edelman, Washington, DC FRANK BUSTA, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN JULIE CASWELL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA CELESTE A. CLARK, Kellogg Company, Battle Creek, MI DAVID B. COCKRAM, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH SUSAN J. CROCKETT, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN ERIC A. DECKER, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA SAMUEL gODEFROY, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario CINDY gOODY, McDonalds Corporation, Oak Brook, IL NED gROTH III, Groth Consulting Services, Pelham, NY BRENDA HALBROOK, Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC DARLENE HARDIE-MUNCY, Cargill, Wayzata, MN JERRY HJELLE, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO VAN S. HUBBARD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD gORDON L. JENSEN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA CAROL KELLAR, Kraft Foods, Glenview, IL CHOR-SAN KHOO, Campbell Soup Company, Camden, NJ MARgARET LEAHY, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA JOSEPH A. LEVITT, Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P., Washington, DC DONNA PORTER, Library of Congress, Washington, DC STEPHEN F. SUNDLOF, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC PETER VAN DAEL, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN CATHERINE E. WOTEKI, Mars, Incorporated, McLean, VA DEREK YACH, PepsiCo, Purchase, NY , BARRY L. ZOUMAS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Staff CAITLIN BOON, Director (through August 2010) LAURA PILLSBURY, Director (from August 2010) gERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant LINDA D. MEYERS, Director, Food and Nutrition Board 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vi

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Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: gordon L. Jensen, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University Robert M. Russell, former Director, Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University Linda g. Snetselaar, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Iowa Pamela Starke-Reed, Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, National Institutes of Health Martin Wiedmann, Department of Food Science, Cornell University Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not endorse the final draft of the report vii

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viii REVIEWERS before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Melvin Worth. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 2 SIZE AND DEMOgRAPHICS OF AgINg POPULATIONS 17 3 PHYSIOLOgY AND AgINg 39 4 FOOD SAFETY CONCERNS FOR AgINg POPULATIONS 61 5 NUTRITION CONCERNS FOR AgINg POPULATIONS 87 6 COMMUNICATINg WITH AgINg POPULATIONS 109 7 FUTURE CHALLENgES AND SOLUTIONS TO PROVIDINg HEALTHY AND SAFE FOODS TO AgINg POPULATIONS 139 REFERENCES 153 APPENDIXES A 159 Workshop Agenda B 163 Workshop Participants C 171 Speaker, Moderator, and Panelist Biographies D 179 Abbreviations and Acronyms ix

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