References

Baker, L.A., A.J. Brazel, N. Selover, C. Martin, N. McIntyre, F.R. Steiner, A. Nelson, and L. Musacchio. 2002. Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation. Urban Ecosystems, 6: 183–203, 2002

Bell, J.F., J.S. Wilson, and G.C. Liu. 2008. Neighborhood greenness and 2-year changes in body mass index of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35:547-53.

Besser, M. and A.L. Dannenberg. 2005. Walking to Public Transit: Steps to Help Meet Physical Activity Recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 29(4):273-280.

Blake, E.S., E.N. Rappaport, and C.W. Landsea. 2007. The Deadliest, Costliest, And Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 To 2006 (And Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts). NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TPC-5, Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center.

Cadenasso, M.L., S.T.A. Pickett, K. Schwarz. 2007. Spatial heterogeneity in urban ecosystems: reconceptualizing land cover and a framework for classification. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(2)80-88.

Clark, W.C. 2007. Sustainability Science: A room of its own. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (6):1737-1738.

Ewing, R., R. Schieber, and C. Zegeer. 2003. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian facilities. American Journal of Public Health 93:1541-45.

Friedman, M.S., K.E. Powell, L. Hutwagner, L.M. Graham, and W.G. Teague. 2001. Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 summer Olympic games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. The Journal of the American Medical Association 285:897-905.

Foley, J.A., R. DeFries, G.P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S.R. Carpenter, F.S. Chapin, M.T. Coe, G.C. Daily, H.K. Gibbs, J.H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E.A. Howard, C.J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J.A. Patz, I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, P.K. Snyder. 2005. Global Consequences of Land Use. Science 309(570).

Groffman, P.M., C.O. Williams, R.V. Pouyat, L.E. Band and I.C. Yesilonis. 2009. Nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide flux in urban forests and grasslands. Journal of Environmental Quality 38:1848-1860.

Groffman, P.M. and R.V. Pouyat. 2009. Methane uptake in urban forests and lawns. Environmental Science & Technology 43:5229-5235.

IPCC (United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland.

Kaushal, S.S., P M. Groffman, L.E. Band, C.A. Shields, R.P. Morgan, M.A. Palmer, K.T. Belt, C.M. Swan, S.E.G.Findlay and G.T. Fisher. 2008. Interaction between climate and land use amplifies watershed nitrogen export. Environmental Science & Technology 42:5872-5878.

Kunreuther, H.C. and E.O. Michel-Kerjan. 2009. At War with the Weather: Managing Large-Scale Risks in an Era of Catastrophes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.



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REFERENCES 35 References Baker, L.A., A.J. Brazel, N. Selover, C. Martin, N. McIntyre, F.R. Steiner, A. Nelson, and L. Musacchio. 2002. Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation. Urban Ecosystems, 6: 183–203, 2002 Bell, J.F., J.S. Wilson, and G.C. Liu. 2008. Neighborhood greenness and 2-year changes in body mass index of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35:547-53. Besser, M. and A.L. Dannenberg. 2005. Walking to Public Transit: Steps to Help Meet Physical Activity Recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 29(4):273-280. Blake, E.S., E.N. Rappaport, and C.W. Landsea. 2007. The Deadliest, Costliest, And Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 To 2006 (And Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts). NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TPC-5, Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. Cadenasso, M.L., S.T.A. Pickett, K. Schwarz. 2007. Spatial heterogeneity in urban ecosystems: reconceptualizing land cover and a framework for classification. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(2)80-88. Clark, W.C. 2007. Sustainability Science: A room of its own. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (6):1737-1738. Ewing, R., R. Schieber, and C. Zegeer. 2003. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian facilities. American Journal of Public Health 93:1541-45. Friedman, M.S., K.E. Powell, L. Hutwagner, L.M. Graham, and W.G. Teague. 2001. Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 summer Olympic games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. The Journal of the American Medical Association 285:897-905. Foley, J.A., R. DeFries, G.P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S.R. Carpenter, F.S. Chapin, M.T. Coe, G.C. Daily, H.K. Gibbs, J.H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E.A. Howard, C.J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J.A. Patz, I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, P.K. Snyder. 2005. Global Consequences of Land Use. Science 309(570). Groffman, P.M., C.O. Williams, R.V. Pouyat, L.E. Band and I.C. Yesilonis. 2009. Nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide flux in urban forests and grasslands. Journal of Environmental Quality 38:1848-1860. Groffman, P.M. and R.V. Pouyat. 2009. Methane uptake in urban forests and lawns. Environmental Science & Technology 43:5229-5235. IPCC (United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland. Kaushal, S.S., P M. Groffman, L.E. Band, C.A. Shields, R.P. Morgan, M.A. Palmer, K.T. Belt, C.M. Swan, S.E.G.Findlay and G.T. Fisher. 2008. Interaction between climate and land use amplifies watershed nitrogen export. Environmental Science & Technology 42:5872-5878. Kunreuther, H.C. and E.O. Michel-Kerjan. 2009. At War with the Weather: Managing Large-Scale Risks in an Era of Catastrophes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

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PATHWAYS TO URBAN SUSTAINABILITY 36 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. Nielsen, T.S. and K.B. Hansen. 2007. Do green areas affect health? Results from a Danish survey on the use of green areas and health indicators. Health and Place 13, 839-850. Gladwin, H., J.K. Lazo, B.H. Morrow, W.G. Peacock, and H.E. Willoughby. 2007. Social Science Research Needs for the Hurricane Forecast and Warning System. Natural Hazards Review 8:87-95. Gunderson, L.H. and C.S. Holling, eds. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Washington, DC: Island Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1999. Our Common Journey: A transition toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 2006a. Facing Hazard and Natural Disasters: Understanding Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 2006b. Linking Knowledge with Action for Sustainable Development: The Role of Program Management—Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 2009. Sustainable Critical Infrastructure Systems: A Framework for Meeting 21st Century Imperatives. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NSB (National Science Board). 2007. HURRICANE WARNING: the critical need for a National Hurricane Research Initiative. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Roach, W.J., J.B. Heffernan, N.B. Grimm, J.R. Arrowsmith, C. Eisinger and T. Rychener. 2008. Unintended consequences of urbanization for aquatic ecosystems: a case study from the Arizona desert. BioScience 58(8):715–727. Ruddell D.M., S.L. Harlan, S. Grossman-Clarke, and A. Buyantuyev. 2009. Risk and exposure to extreme heat in microclimates of Phoenix, AZ. In: Showalter, P.S. and Y. Lu (eds) Geospatial techniques in urban hazard and disaster analysis. Springer, New York (in press). Shapiro, C.D., R.L. Bernknopf, and S.M. Wachter. 2007. A Roundtable on a National Framework for Natural Hazard Risk Reduction and Management: Developing a Research Agenda Summary Report, Open-File Report 2007-1106. Sivak, M. 2008. Is the U.S. on the path to the lowest motor vehicle fatalities in decades? University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, UMTRI-2008-39, July. Snover, A.K., L. Whitely Binder, J. Lopez, E. Willmott, J. Kay, D. Howell, and J. Simmonds. 2007. Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments. Oakland, CA: ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability. Vajjhala, S., A. Krupnick, E. McCormick, M. Grove, P. McDowell, C. Redman, L. Shabman, and M. Small. 2007. Rising to the Challenge: Integrating Social Sciences into NSF Environmental Observatories. Workshop report. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, September. WCED (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development). 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.