Recommendation 2-1: The DoD should take aggressive actions to identify and remove barriers to the broader adoption of incremental development methods, including iterative approaches, staged acquisition, evidence-based systems and software engineering, and related methods that involve explicit acknowledgment and mitigation of engineering risk.

Recommendation 2-2: The DoD should take steps to accumulate high-quality data regarding project management experience and technology choices that can be used to inform cost estimation models, particularly as they apply to innovative software development projects.

Finding 2-5: Architectural expertise is becoming dramatically more important for the DoD, its advisors, and its contractors. There will be significant and immediate benefits from advances in the state of technical support for architecture.

Recommendation 2-3: Update procurement, contracting, and governance methods to include an early and explicit architecture phase that reduces the predominant uncertainties in software intensive systems.

Recommendation 2-4: Define architectural leadership roles for major SIDRE projects and provide program managers with channels for architectural expertise.

Recommendation 2-5: Develop the technical and management infrastructure necessary to simultaneously support stabilized, high-assurance development of the current evolutionary increment while concurrently evolving the plans and specifications for stabilized development of the next high-assurance increment.

Finding 2-6: The DoD has a growing need for software expertise, and it is not able to meet this need through intrinsic resources. Nor is it able to fully outsource this requirement to DoD primes. The DoD needs to be a smart software customer. This need is particularly significant for large-scale innovative software-intensive projects for which there are cross-cutting software architectural requirements and validation challenges.

Chapter 3

Finding 3-1: Industry leaders attend to software architecture as a first-order decision, and many follow a product-line strategy based on commitment to the most essential common software architectural elements and ecosystem structures.

Finding 3-2: The technology for definition and management of software architecture is sufficiently mature, with widespread adoption in industry. These approaches are ready for adoption by the DoD, assuming that a framework of incentives can be created in acquisition and development efforts.

Finding 3-3: The DoD would benefit from explicit attention to software architecture and industry best practice, including (1) formalizing career paths and role descriptions for software architects, (2) identifying ways that DoD-aligned software architects can provide objective advice (see Chapter 2), and (3) enhancing organizational structures to support effective architectural leadership.

Finding 3-4: Several DoD programs are using software architecture-driven acquisition with successful results.

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