Moore’s bounty is a portable sequential-programming model.1 Programmers did not have to rewrite their software—software just ran faster on the next generation of hardware. Programmers therefore designed and built new software applications that executed correctly on current hardware but were often too compute-intensive to be useful (that is, it took too long to get a useful answer in many cases), anticipating the next generation of faster hardware. The software pressure built demand for next-generation hardware. The sequential-programming model evolved in that ecosystem as well. To build innovative, more capable sophisticated software, software developers turned increasingly to higher-level sequential-programming languages and higher levels of abstraction (that is, the reuse of libraries and component software for common tasks). Moore’s law helped to drive the progression in sequential-language abstractions because increasing processor speed hid their costs.

For example, early sequential computers were programmed in assembly language. Assembly-language statements have a one-to-one mapping to the instructions that the computer executes. In 1957, Backus and his colleagues at IBM recognized that assembly-language programming was arduous, and they introduced the first implementation of a high-level sequential scientific computing language, called Fortran, for the IBM 704 computer.2 Instead of writing assembly language, programmers wrote in Fortran, and then a compiler translated Fortran into the computer’s assembly language. The IBM team made the following claims for that approach:

  1. Programs will contain fewer errors because writing, reading, and understanding Fortran is easier than performing the same tasks in assembly language.
  2. It will take less time to write a correct program in Fortran because each Fortran statement is an abstraction of many assembly instructions.
  3. The performance of the program will be comparable with that of assembly language given good compiler technology.


1Jim Larus makes this argument in an article in 2009, Spending Moore’s dividend, Communications of the ACM 52(5): 62-69.

2J.W. Backus, R.I. Beeber, S. Best, R. Goldberg, L.M. Haibt, H.L. Herrick, R.A. Nelson, D. Sayre, P.B. Sheridan, H. Stern, Ziller, R.A. Hughes, and R. Nutt, 1957, The Fortran automatic coding system, Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference, Los Angeles, Cal., pp. 187-198, available online at

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