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FIGURE 2.1 Transistors, frequency, power, performance, and cores over time (1985-2010). The vertical scale is logarithmic. Data curated by Mark Horowitz with input from Kunle Olukotun, Lance Hammond, Herb Sutter, Burton Smith, Chris Batten, and Krste Asanoviç.

computers that perform single tasks as fast as possible. That goal is still important. Because the uniprocessor model we have today is extremely powerful, many performance-demanding applications can be mapped to run on networks of processors by dividing the work up at a very coarse granularity. Therefore, we now have great building blocks that enable us to create a variety of high-performance systems that can be programmed with high-level abstractions. There is a serious need for research and education in the creation and use of high-level abstractions for parallel systems.

However, single-task performance is no longer the only metric of interest. The market for computers is so large that there is plenty of economic incentive to create more specialized and hence more cost-effective machines. Diversity is already evident. The current trend of moving computation into what is now called the cloud has created great demands for high-throughput systems. For those systems, making each transaction run as fast as possible is not the best thing to do. It is better, for example, to have a larger number of lower-speed processors to optimize the throughput rate and minimize power consumption. It is similarly important to conserve power for hand-held devices. Thus, power consumption is a



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