Summary Findings

TABLE I Summary of Science Frontiers Panels’ Findings: Identification of Key Science Questions and Areas of Unusual Discovery Potential

Panel

Science Questions

Area(s) of Unusual Discovery Potential

Cosmology and Fundamental Physics

CFP 1

How did the universe begin?

Gravitational wave astronomy

CFP 2

Why is the universe accelerating?

CFP 3

What is dark matter?

CFP 4

What are the properties of neutrinos?

Galactic Neighborhood

GAN 1

What are the flows of matter and energy in the circumgalactic medium?

Time-domain astronomy, astrometry

GAN 2

What controls the mass-energy-chemical cycles within galaxies?

GAN 3

What is the fossil record of galaxy assembly from the first stars to the present?

GAN 4

What are the connections between dark and luminous matter?

Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

GCT 1

How do cosmic structures form and evolve?

The epoch of reionization

GCT 2

How do baryons cycle in and out of galaxies, and what do they do while they are there?

GCT 3

How do black holes grow, radiate, and influence their surroundings?

GCT 4

What were the first objects to light up the universe, and when did they do it?

Planetary Systems and Star Formation

PSF 1

How do stars form?

Identification and characterization of nearby habitable exoplanets

PSF 2

How do circumstellar disks evolve and form planetary systems?

PSF 3

How diverse are planetary systems?

PSF 4

Do habitable worlds exist around other stars, and can we identify the telltale signs of life on an exoplanet?

Stars and Stellar Evolution

SSE 1

How do rotation and magnetic fields affect stars?

Time-domain surveys

SSE 2

What are the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae and how do they explode?

SSE 3

How do the lives of massive stars end?

SSE 4

What controls the mass, radius, and spin of compact stellar remnants?



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Summary Findings TABLE I Summary of Science Frontiers Panels’ Findings: Identification of Key Science Questions and Areas of Unusual Discovery Potential Area(s) of Unusual Panel Science Questions Discovery Potential Cosmology CFP 1 How did the universe begin? Gravitational wave and astronomy CFP 2 Why is the universe accelerating? Fundamental Physics CFP 3 What is dark matter? CFP 4 What are the properties of neutrinos? Galactic GAN 1 What are the flows of matter and energy in the circumgalactic Time-domain Neighborhood medium? astronomy, astrometry GAN 2 What controls the mass-energy-chemical cycles within galaxies? GAN 3 What is the fossil record of galaxy assembly from the first stars to the present? GAN 4 What are the connections between dark and luminous matter? Galaxies GCT 1 How do cosmic structures form and evolve? The epoch of Across reionization GCT 2 How do baryons cycle in and out of galaxies, and what do they do Cosmic Time while they are there? GCT 3 How do black holes grow, radiate, and influence their surroundings? GCT 4 What were the first objects to light up the universe, and when did they do it? Planetary PSF 1 How do stars form? Identification and Systems characterization of PSF 2 How do circumstellar disks evolve and form planetary systems? and Star nearby habitable Formation PSF 3 How diverse are planetary systems? exoplanets PSF 4 Do habitable worlds exist around other stars, and can we identify the telltale signs of life on an exoplanet? Stars and SSE 1 How do rotation and magnetic fields affect stars? Time-domain Stellar surveys SSE 2 What are the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae and how do they Evolution explode? SSE 3 How do the lives of massive stars end? SSE 4 What controls the mass, radius, and spin of compact stellar remnants? 247

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