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Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics Summary Findings TABLE I Summary of Science Frontiers Panels’ Findings: Identification of Key Science Questions and Areas of Unusual Discovery Potential Panel Science Questions Area(s) of Unusual Discovery Potential Cosmology and Fundamental Physics CFP 1 How did the universe begin? Gravitational wave astronomy CFP 2 Why is the universe accelerating? CFP 3 What is dark matter? CFP 4 What are the properties of neutrinos? Galactic Neighborhood GAN 1 What are the flows of matter and energy in the circumgalactic medium? Time-domain astronomy, astrometry GAN 2 What controls the mass-energy-chemical cycles within galaxies? GAN 3 What is the fossil record of galaxy assembly from the first stars to the present? GAN 4 What are the connections between dark and luminous matter? Galaxies Across Cosmic Time GCT 1 How do cosmic structures form and evolve? The epoch of reionization GCT 2 How do baryons cycle in and out of galaxies, and what do they do while they are there? GCT 3 How do black holes grow, radiate, and influence their surroundings? GCT 4 What were the first objects to light up the universe, and when did they do it? Planetary Systems and Star Formation PSF 1 How do stars form? Identification and characterization of nearby habitable exoplanets PSF 2 How do circumstellar disks evolve and form planetary systems? PSF 3 How diverse are planetary systems? PSF 4 Do habitable worlds exist around other stars, and can we identify the telltale signs of life on an exoplanet? Stars and Stellar Evolution SSE 1 How do rotation and magnetic fields affect stars? Time-domain surveys SSE 2 What are the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae and how do they explode? SSE 3 How do the lives of massive stars end? SSE 4 What controls the mass, radius, and spin of compact stellar remnants?
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