C
Acronyms

2MASS—Two-Micron All-Sky Survey

A3IV—Aperture Array Astronomical Imaging Verification, European SKA-mid demonstrator

AAAC—Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee

AAG—Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants, an NSF program

AANM—Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, the 2001 NRC decadal survey

ACA—Atacama Compact Array, an array of smaller dishes that complement the main array of ALMA

ACT—Atacama Cosmology Telescope

AGASA—Akeno Giant Air Shower Array

AGB—Asymptotic giant branch

AGIS—Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System

AGN—Active galactic nuclei

AGS—NSF Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences (formerly ATM)

AIC—Accretion-induced collapse

ALFA—Multi-receiver system for H I studies at Arecibo

ALMA—Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

ALTAIR—Access to Large Telescopes for Astronomical Instruction and Research, a 2009 NOAO report

AMS—Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

ANITA—Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna

AO—Adaptive optics



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C Acronyms 2MASS—Two-Micron All-Sky Survey A3IV—Aperture Array Astronomical Imaging Verification, European SKA-mid demonstrator AAAC—Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee AAG—Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants, an NSF program AANM—Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, the 2001 NRC decadal survey ACA—Atacama Compact Array, an array of smaller dishes that complement the main array of ALMA ACT—Atacama Cosmology Telescope AGASA—Akeno Giant Air Shower Array AGB—Asymptotic giant branch AGIS—Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System AGN—Active galactic nuclei AGS—NSF Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences (formerly ATM) AIC—Accretion-induced collapse ALFA—Multi-receiver system for H I studies at Arecibo ALMA—Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array ALTAIR—Access to Large Telescopes for Astronomical Instruction and Research, a 2009 NOAO report AMS—Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer ANITA—Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna AO—Adaptive optics 541

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 542 AODP—Adaptive optics development program APEX—Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, 12-m telescope at ALMA site run by Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, ESO, and Onsala Space Observatory ARO—Arizona Radio Observatory AS—Academia Sinica, Taiwan ASIAA—Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics ASKAP—Australian SKA Pathfinder AST—The Division of Astronomical Sciences in the MPS Directorate at NSF ASTE—Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, 10-m telescope at ALMA site run by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) in collaboration with universities in Japan and Chile ATA—Allen Telescope Array ATA-42—Current version of ATA with 42 antennas ATA-256—Allen Telescope Array with 256 antennas ATI—Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation program at NSF-AST ATIC—Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter ATST—Advanced Technology Solar Telescope AUI—Associated Universities, Inc. AURA—Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy BAO—Baryon acoustic oscillation BBH—Binary black hole BBN—Big bang nucleosynthesis BESS—Balloon-borne Experiment with Superconducting Spectrometer BIMA—Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association BLISS—Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph BSRBS—NRAO’s Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer CALISTO—Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory CARA—Center for Atmospheric Research in Antarctica CARMA—Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy CASA—Common Astronomy Software Applications, a data reduction package led by NRAO for EVLA and ALMA use CATE—Cost appraisal and technical evaluation CCAT—Formerly the Cornell-Caltech Atacama Telescope CCD—Charge-coupled device CDMS—Cryogenic Dark Matter Search CFP—Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel CGM—Circumgalactic medium

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aPPendIx c 543 Chandra—X-ray telescope in space, a NASA mission CHARA—Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, a six-telescope optical-infrared interferometric array CI—neutral carbon CLIO—A prototype, underground, cryogenic gravitational-wave detector in Japan CMB—Cosmic microwave background CMBPol—Concept for space mission to study the polarization of the CMB CMD—Color-magnitude diagram CMF—Core mass function CNES—Centre National d’Études Spatiales COBE—Cosmic Background Explorer COROT—Convection Rotation and Planetary Transits satellite COS—Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on HST COSMOS—Cosmological Evolution Survey COUPP—Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics CP—Charge-parity symmetry CREAM—Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass CSA—Canadian Space Agency CSO—Caltech Submillimeter Observatory CTA—Čerenkov Telescope Array CV—Cataclysmic variable CXC—Chandra X-ray Observatory Center DAMA/LIBRA—Dark Matter Experiment/Large Sodium Iodide Bulk for Rare Processes, a Gran Sasso detector DARPA—Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DEEP2—Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 DEIMOS—Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, a Keck Observatory spectrograph DES—Dark Energy Survey DM—Deformable mirror DOE—Department of Energy DRS—Disturbance Reduction System for LISA DWFIR—Deep, Wide-Field IR Survey EDGES—Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Step, an MIT project EDELWEISS—Expérience pour Detecter Les Wimps En Site Souterrain E-ELT—European Extremely Large Telescope project EHT—Event Horizon Telescope ELT—Extremely Large Telescope

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 544 EMIR—Near-infrared multiobject spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio de Canarias EMP—Extremely metal poor EMRI—Extreme mass ratio inspiral EoR—Epoch of reionization EOS—Elecromagnetic Observations from Space, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel ESA—European Space Agency ESO—European Southern Observatory EVLA—Enhanced Very Large Array ExAO—Extreme adaptive optics EXIST—Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope ExoPTF—Exoplanet Task Force FASR—Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope FAST—Five-hundred-meter-Aperture Spherical Telescope, under construction in Guizhou Province, China FOV—Field of view FRIB—Facility for Rare Isotope Beams FUSE—Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer FWHM—Full-width, half-maximum G—Gravitational coupling constant GALEX—Galaxy Evolution Explorer GAN—Galactic Neighborhood, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel GBM—Gamma-ray-burst monitor GBT—Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope GCT—Galaxies Across Cosmic Time, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel GEMS—Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer GEO—NSF Geosciences Directorate; also, gravitational wave detector GLAST—Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope GMC—Giant molecular cloud GMRT—Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope, operated by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India GMT—Giant Magellan Telescope GMTO—Giant Magellan Telescope Office GO—Guest observer GOODS-N—The northern deep field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey GPI—Gemini Planet Imager

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aPPendIx c 545 GR—General relativity GRB—Gamma-ray burst GRS—Gravitational Reference System for LPF and LISA GSMT—Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope GUT—Grand Unified Theory GZK—Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin mechanism H I—Neutral atomic hydrogen H II—Ionized hydrogen h(z)—Hubble parameter HAWC—High-Altitude Water Čerenkov experiment HERA—Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array HerMES—Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey HESS—High Energy Stereoscopic System HiRes—High Resolution Fly’s Eye HPRV—High-Precision Radial-Velocity Spectroscopy H-R diagram—Hertzsprung-Russell diagram HST—Hubble Space Telescope HZ—Habitable zone (not to be confused with Hz [hertz], a frequency of one cycle per second) ICM—Intracluster medium IDECS—International Dark Energy Cosmology Survey IDL—Interactive Data Language IFU—Integral field unit IGM—Intergalactic medium IGW—Inflationary gravitational wave IMF—Initial mass function, the distribution of stars over mass before any stars have died IMS—Interferometry Measurement System for LPF and LISA INAOE—Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica IPAC—Infrared Processing and Analysis Center IR—Infrared IRAF—Image Reduction and Analysis Facility IRAM—Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique IRAS—Infrared Astronomy Satellite IRDC—Infrared dark cloud IRS—Infrared Spectrometer, on Spitzer ISM—Interstellar medium IXO—International X-ray Observatory

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 546 JAXA—Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JCMT—James Clerk Maxwell Telescope JDEM—Joint Dark Energy Mission JPL—Jet Propulsion Laboratory JWST—James Webb Space Telescope KAIT—Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope KBO—Kuiper belt object KI—Keck Interferometer ΛCDM—Lambda cold dark matter LAGEOS—Laser Geodynamics (satellite) LANL—Los Alamos National Laboratory LAT—Large Area Telescope, an instrument on the Fermi satellite L-band—An IEEE-designated band covering roughly 16 to 40 cm LBT—Large Binocular Telescope LBTI—Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer LBV—Luminous blue variable LCGT—Large Cryogenic Gravitational-wave Telescope, under consideration in Japan LGS—Laser guide star LHC—Large Hadron Collider LIGO—Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory LISA—Laser Interferometer Space Antenna LLR—Lunar Laser Ranging LMC—Large Magellanic Cloud LMT—Large Millimeter Telescope LMXB—Low-mass X-ray binary LOFAR—Low Frequency Array for radio astronomy, a low-frequency antenna array centered in the Netherlands LOPES—LOFAR prototype station LPF—LISA Pathfinder, a NASA mission LSS—Large-scale structure LSST—Large Synoptic Survey Telescope LUX—Large Underground Xenon detector LWA—Long Wavelength Array MAGIC—Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Čerenkov Telescope MBH—Massive black hole MCAO—Multiconjugate adaptive optics MeerKAT—Meer Karoo Array Telescope, a SKA-mid pathfinder in South Africa

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aPPendIx c 547 MERLIN—Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network MHD—Magnetohydrodynamic MIDEX—Mid-size Explorer mission, capped at $250 million, excluding launch MIPS—Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF, on Spitzer MMT—Multi-Mirror Telescope MMTO—MMT Office MOS—Multi-Object Spectrograph MOSFIRE—Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infrared Exploration MPF—Microlensing Planet Finder MPS—NSF directorate of Mathematical and Physical Sciences MREFC—Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction, an NSF program MRI—Major Research Instrumentation, an NSF program MSP—Millisecond pulsar MSSM—Minimal supersymmetric standard model MUSTANG—Multiplexed Squid TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz, a bolometer array on the GBT MWA—Murchison Widefield Array, a low-frequency radio (at frequencies from 80 to 300 MHz) interferometer array to be built in Western Australia NAA—North American Array NAASC—North American ALMA Science Center NAIC—National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center NAOJ—National Astronomical Observatory of Japan NASA—National Aeronautics and Space Administration NEO—Near-Earth object NFIRAOS—Narrow-Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System for the Thirty-Meter Telescope NGST—Next-Generation Space Telescope NINS—National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan NIRCam—Near-Infrared Camera on JWST NIRSpec—Near-Infrared Spectrograph IFU on JWST NIRSS—Near-Infrared Sky Surveyor NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce NOAO—National Optical Astronomy Observatory NOvA—A neutrino-oscillation detector under construction in Minnesota NRAO—National Radio Astronomy Observatory NRC—National Research Council, USA; also, National Research Council of Canada NRL—Naval Research Laboratory, Department of the Navy

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 548 NSC—National Science Council, Taiwan NSF—National Science Foundation NSO—National Solar Observatory NST—New Solar Telescope NuSTAR—Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, a NASA Small Explorer mission featuring an imaging hard-X-ray telescope, to be launched in 2011 OHEP—Office of High Energy Physics, at DOE OIR—Optical-infrared; also, Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel OPP—Office of Polar Programs, NSF OVRO—Owens Valley Radio Observatory OVSA—New Jersey Institute of Technology’s Owens Valley Solar Array PACS—Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, on Herschel PAG—Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel PAH—Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAIRITEL—Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope, which conducts robotic transient surveys PAMELA—Payload for Antimatter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics PAPER—Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization PdBI—Plateau de Bure Interferometer, a millimeter wave array in France, operated by IRAM PFI—Planet Formation Instrument for the proposed Thirty-Meter Telescope PNGA—Particle, Nuclear, and Gravitational-Wave Astrophysics, a panel from AANM PPN—Parametrized Post-Newtonian PPP—Program Prioritization Panel PSF—Planetary Systems and Star Formation, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel; also, point-spread function PTF—Palomar Transient Factory Python—An interactive data-analysis language QCD—Quantum chromodynamics QSO—Quasi-stellar object R&A—Research and analysis R&D—Research and development ReSTAR—Renewing Small Telescopes for Astronomical Research, a 2007 NOAO report

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aPPendIx c 549 RFI—Radio-frequency interference RGB—Red-giant branch RICE—Radio Ice Čerenkov Experiment RMS—Radio, millimeter, and submillimeter; also, Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Astronomy from the Ground, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel ROSAT—Röntgen Satellite RRAT—Rotating radio transient RV—Radial velocity RXTE—Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer SAFIRE—Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Explorer SAMURAI—Science of AGNs and Masers with Unprecedented Resolution in Astronomical Imaging SCUBA—Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array, operated on the JCMT SCUBA-2—Successor to SCUBA with many more detectors SDO—Solar Dynamics Observatory SDSS—Sloan Digital Sky Survey SETI—Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence SF—Star formation SFE—Star-formation efficiency SFP—Science Frontiers Panel SFR—Star-formation rate SFSR—Single-field, slow-roll inflation Sgr A*—Sagittarius A*, a radio source at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy SHARC II—Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II, at CSO SIM—Space Interferometry Mission SIRTF—Space Infrared Telescope Facility, now Spitzer SKA—Square Kilometer Array SLAC—Stanford Linear Accelerator Center SMA—Submillimeter Array SMARTS—Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System SMBH—Supermassive black hole SMC—Small Magellanic Cloud SMEX—Small-scale Explorer mission, costing less than $150 million, excluding launch S/N—Signal-to-noise ratio SNe—Supernovae SOAR—Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope SOFIA—Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOLIS—Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 550 SOML—Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory SPHERE—Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research, a VLT instrument SPICA—Space Infared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics SPIRE—Spectral and Polarimetric Imaging Receiver, on Herschel SPIRIT—Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope SPST—South Pole Submillimeter-wave Telescope SPT—South Pole Telescope SSE—Stars and Stellar Evolution, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel STIS—Space Telescope Imaging Spectograph STScI—Space Telescope Science Institute SZ—Sunyaev-Zel’dovich SZA—Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Array SZE—Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect, a distortion in the spectrum of the CMB caused by gas in clusters TES—Transition-edge sensors TIGER—Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder TMT—Thirty-Meter Telescope TPC—Time-projection chamber for the XENON100 experiment TPF—Terrestrial Planet Finder TRL—Technology readiness level TSIP—Telescope System Instrumentation Program UHECR—Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays ULDB—Ultralong-duration balloon URO—University Radio Observatories (currently includes CSO, CARMA, UMASS, and the ATA) USAF—U.S. Air Force UV—Ultraviolet VAO—Virtual Astronomical Observatory, the operational phase of the National Virtual Observatory VERITAS—Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System, a cosmic ray detector VIRGO—A European gravitational-wave detector VISTA—Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy VLA—Very Large Array VLBA—Very Long Baseline Array VLBI—Very Long Baseline Interferometry VLT—ESO’s Very Large Telescope

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aPPendIx c 551 VO—Virtual Observatory VSOP-2—A Japanese radio telescope satellite that could be used with ground- based VLBI antennas w(z)—Dark energy equation-of-state parameter WArP—WIMP Argon Program WD—White dwarf WFC-3—Wide Field Camera 3, a Hubble instrument WFIRST—Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope WFMOS—Wide-Field Fiber-Fed Optical MOS, a proposed Gemini instrument WFS—Wave-front sensor WHIM—Warm-hot intergalactic medium WIMP—Weakly interacting massive particle WISE—Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer WIYN—Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO Telescope WMAP—Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe XENON100—A WIMP detector XENON1T—A WIMP detector XGS—X-ray grating spectrometer XMASS—A WIMP detector XMM-Newton—ESA’s X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission XRSO—X-ray spectroscopy observatory

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