TABLE 2.4 Capabilities: Long Wavelengths (IR, Far-IR, Submillimeter, Radio)



Scientific Applications

Far-IR imaging and spectroscopy

Now: Herschel (3.5-m warm telescope)

Mapping dust distribution in nearby galaxies with ~5″ resolution


Needed: 5- to 10-m cold telescope

Study of major far-IR lines (63 μm [O I], 158 μm [C II], 205 μm [N II] )


2× better angular resolution

>103× greater sensitivity


Submillimeter imaging and spectroscopy

Now: ALMA (bands 7-9) for high resolution

Needed: ~25-m telescope at high site

∆θ < 3″ at 350 μm

350 μm-1 mm

Polarimetry (linear) would be valuable

High-resolution line and continuum images of star-forming regions’ high-excitation molecules, dust

Mapping star-forming clouds at galactic center

Dust maps for nearby galaxies

Potential for imaging black holes

Millimeter-wave imaging

Approved: ALMA

High-resolution images of dust in star-forming regions


Needed: CARMA array receivers (1 mm)

High-resolution images: molecular gas in star-forming regions

Connecting galactic to extragalactic star formation

Millimeter-wave line and continuum mapping

Now: ALMA in S, CARMA in N

Distribution of CO and other molecules in star-forming galaxies


Needed: CARMA array receivers (1 mm)

Needed: LMT large-format array receivers

Zeeman measures of B|| from CN

Molecular-cloud properties in different galactic environments

Centimeter-wave line and continuum mapping

Now: EVLA, GBT, Arecibo, ATA

Needed: upgrade Arecibo and GBT to array receivers

Needed: upgrade ATA to 128 antennas

Improved H I maps, deep extragalactic imaging

Zeeman measurement of B|| using H I, OH

Mapping synchrotron and free-free emission

Identifying and mapping new heavy molecules and transitions

Gravity waves


Black hole masses

NOTE: Acronyms are defined in Appendix C.

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