of combined D.D.S./D.M.D./Ph.D. programs. This would allow most or all of the burden of the D.D.S./D.M.D. tuition to be covered for students who commit to long-term careers in dental research. Enhanced stipends for graduate students should be provided if fiscally feasible without causing students to lose eligibility for low-interest student loans. In conjoined D.D.S./D.M.D.-Ph.D. programs, when the clinical degree is awarded prior to the Ph.D., the NIH needs to be encouraged to permit postdoctoral stipend levels to apply during the post-D.D.S. phase (as opposed to the lower, predoctoral stipend levels). The feasibility of adaptations of the existing Medical Science Training Program (M.D./Ph.D.) model to dental education—including full funding for eight or so years—should be explored.