EXPANDING UNDERREPRESENTED MINORITY PARTICIPATION

AMERICA’S SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TALENT AT THE CROSSROADS

Committee on Underrepresented Groups and the Expansion of the Science and Engineering Workforce Pipeline

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING, AND
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee on Underrepresented Groups and the Expansion of the Science and Engineering Workforce Pipeline Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy Policy and Global Affairs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by grants between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Aero- nautics and Space Administration, Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Otto Haas Charitable Trust #2. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15968-5 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15968-7 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15969-2 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15969-5 (PDF) Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 20110=922442 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap. edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON UNDERREPRESENTED GROUPS AND THE EXPANSION OF THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WORKFORCE PIPELINE Freeman A. Hrabowski, III, Chair, President, University of Maryland Baltimore County James H. Ammons, President, Florida A&M University Sandra Begay-Campbell, Principal Member of the Technical Staff, Sandia National Laboratories Beatriz Chu Clewell, Principal Research Associate, The Urban Institute Nancy S. Grasmick, State Superintendent of Schools, Maryland State Department of Education Carlos G. Gutierrez, Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University-Los Angeles Evelynn M. Hammonds, Dean of Harvard College and Barbara Gutmann Rosenkrantz Professor of the History of Science and of African and African American Studies, Harvard University Wesley L. Harris (NAE), Associate Provost for Faculty Equity and Charles Stark Draper Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sylvia Hurtado, Professor and Director, Higher Education Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles James S. Jackson (IOM), Director, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan Shirley Mathis McBay, President, Quality Education for Minorities Network Diana Natalicio, President, University of Texas El Paso John C. Nemeth, Vice President, Oak Ridge Associated Universities Eduardo J. Padrón, President, Miami Dade College Willie Pearson, Professor of Sociology, Georgia Institute of Technology Sidney A. Ribeau, President, Howard University John Brooks Slaughter (NAE), President and CEO, National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering Richard Tapia (NAE), University Professor, Maxfield-Oshman Professor in Engineering, Director of the Center for Excellence and Equity in Education, and Associate Director of Graduate Studies, Rice University Lydia Villa-Komaroff, President and CEO, Cytonome, Inc. Linda Sue Warner, President, Haskell Indian Nations University v

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Staff Peter H. Henderson, Co-Study Director Earnestine Psalmonds, Co-Study Director* Neeraj P. Gorkhaly, Research Associate *Earnestine Psalmonds is a visiting scholar from the National Science Foundation (NSF). This work was supported by the NSF, but findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF. vi

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COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PUBLIC POLICY George Whitesides (Chair), Woodford L. and Ann A. Flowers University Professor, Harvard University William Brody, President, Johns Hopkins University Claude R. Canizares, Vice President for Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ralph J. Cicerone (Ex officio), President, National Academy of Sciences Edward F. Crawley, Executive Director, CMI and Professor, Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ruth A. David, President and Chief Executive Officer, ANSER (Analytic Services, Inc.) Haile T. Debas, Executive Director, University of California at San Francisco Global Health Sciences Harvey V. Fineberg (Ex Officio), President, Institute of Medicine Jacques S. Gansler, Vice President for Research, Professor and Roger C. Lipitz Chair in Public Policy and Private Enterprise, University of Maryland MRC Greenwood, Chancellor Emerita, University of California Santa Cruz, and Professor of Nutrition and Internal Medicine, University of California Davis W. Carl Lineberger, Professor of Chemistry, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, University of Colorado C. Dan Mote, Jr., President and Glenn Martin Institute, Professor of Engineering, University of Maryland College Park Robert N. Nerem, Parker H. Petit Professor and Director, Georgia Institute of Technology Lawrence T. Papay, CEO and Principal, PQR, LLC Anne C. Petersen, Professor of Psychology, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University Susan C. Scrimshaw, President, The Sage Colleges William J. Spencer, Chairman Emeritus, SEMATECH Lydia Thomas (Ex Officio) President and Chief Executive Officer (Retired), Noblis, Inc. Charles M. Vest (Ex Officio), President, National Academy of Engineering Nancy S. Wexler, Higgins Professor of Neuropsychology, Columbia University Mary Lou Zoback, Vice President Earthquake Risk Applications, Risk Management Solutions, Inc. Staff Richard Bissell, Executive Director Marion Ramsey, Administrative Associate Neeraj P. Gorkhaly, Research Associate vii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Betsy Ancker-Johnson, General Motors Corporation (retired); Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Arizona State University; Daryl Chubin, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Henry Frierson, University of Florida; Adam Gamoran, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Juliet Garcia, University of Texas at Brownsville; Tuajuanda Jordan, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Shirley Malcom, American Association for the Advance- ment of Science; Douglas Medin, Northwestern University; Samuel Myers, University of Minnesota; Helen Quinn, SLAC National Accelerator Labora- tory; Joan Reede, Harvard University; Isiah Warner, Louisiana State Univer- sity; and Herman White, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Georges C. Benjamin, ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS American Public Health Association, and Mary E. Clutter, National Science Foundation (retired). Appointed by the National Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The study committee thanks the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Aeronautics and Space Admin- istration, the Otto P. Haas Foundation, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York City for the financial support they provided for this study and the many experts who met with the committee to provide their insights on the legal and the policy context, role of diversity in science and engineering and guidance for a national response to broaden participation of under- represented minorities. We also thank the staff of the National Academies who helped organize our committee meetings and draft the report. Freeman A. Hrabowski, III, Chair Committee on Underrepresented Groups and the Expansion of the Science and Engineering Workforce Pipeline

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Contents Summary 1 Introduction 1 A Strong Science and Engineering Workforce 17 2 Dimensions of the Problem 33 Becoming Scientists and Engineers 3 Preparation 53 4 Access and Motivation 91 5 Affordability 103 6 Academic and Social Support 129 Conclusion 7 The Journey Beyond the Crossroads 143 8 Recommendations and Implementation Actions 171 Bibliography 191 APPENDIXES A Charge to the Study Committee 205 B U.S. Senate Letter to the National Academy of Sciences 207 C Committee Member Biographies 211 D Agendas for Public Meetings 225 E Recommendations on STEM Education from Rising 233 Above the Gathering Storm F Ingredients for Success in STEM 239 G Baccalaureate Origins of Underrepresented Minority PhDs 249 H An Agenda for Future Research 265 xi

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xii CONTENTS TABLES 2-1 Percentage Change in S&E Degrees Earned, by Degree Level and Race/Ethnicity (Bachelor’s and Master’s 1998-2007; Doctorates 1998-2007), 44 2-2 Principal Investigators on NIH Research Grants, by Race/Ethnicity, 48 2-3 NSF Research Proposals and Awards, by Race/Ethnicity of PI, 2009, 49 3-1 Average Mathematics Scores of Students from Beginning Kindergarten to Grade 8, by Race/Ethnicity: 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2007, 61 3-2 Average Science Score of Students in Grades 4, 8, and 12, by Race/ Ethnicity: 1996, 2000, and 2005, 62 3-3 Average Mathematics Scale Scores and Achievement Level Results by Race/Ethnicity for 4th and 8th Grade Public School Students, 2007, 64 3-4 Average Science Scale Scores by Race/Ethnicity and Grade: 2000 and 2005, 66 3-5 Average Scores on the SAT Reasoning Test by Race/Ethnicity, 2009, 83 3-6 Average State Mathematics Scores on the SAT Reasoning Test by Race/Ethnicity, 2009, 84 5-1 Primary Support Mechanism for S&E Doctorate Recipients, by Citizenship, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity: 2007, 116 5-2 Primary Mechanisms of Support for S&E Doctorate Recipients by Citizenship, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity: 2005, 124 7-1 Approaches to Increasing Underrepresented Minority Participation and Success in Science and Engineering, 145 7-2 Number of Baccalaureate Institutions of African American PhDs in Science and Engineering, by Broad Field and Institutional Type, 2006, 151 8-1 Cost Estimates for New Underrepresented Minority Student Support (millions of dollars), 188 G-1 Top 25 Baccalaureate Origin Institutions of African American Doctorates in the Natural Sciences and Engineering (NS&E) 2002-2006, 252

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xiii CONTENTS G-2 Top 15 Baccalaureate Origin Institutions of African American Doctorates in the Natural Sciences and Engineering (NS&E) That Are Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), by Broad Field, 2002-2006 (most recent five years), 254 G-3 Top 13 Baccalaureate Origin Institutions of African American Doctorates in the Natural Sciences and Engineering (NS&E) That Are Predominantly White Universities, by Broad Field, 2002- 2006 (most recent five years), 256 G-4 Top 25 Baccalaureate Origin Institutions of Hispanic Doctorates in the Natural Sciences and Engineering (NS&E), 2002-2006, 261 G-5 Top 25 Baccalaureate Origin Institutions of Hispanic Doctorates in the Natural Sciences and Engineering (NS&E), by Broad Field, 2002-2006 (most recent five years), 260 FIGURES 1-1 U.S. Population and U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce, by Race/Ethnicity, 2006, 25 1-2 U.S. Population by Race/Ethnicity, 1990-2050 (2010-2050 projected), 26 2-1 Enrollment and Degrees, by Educational Level and Race/Ethnicity/ Citizenship, 2007, 37 2-2 Trends in Students’ Aspiration to Major in a STEM Discipline by Racial Identification, 1971-2009, 40 2-3 Percentage of 2004 STEM Aspirants Who Completed STEM Degrees in Four and Five Years, by Race/Ethnicity, 41 2-4 Four- and Five-Year Degree Completion Rates of 2004 Freshmen, by Initial Major Aspiration and Race/Ethnicity, 42 2-5 Underrepresented Minorities Among S&E Degree Recipients, by Degree Level, 2006, 45 2-6 Temporary Residents Among S&E Degree Recipients, by Degree Level, 2006, 46 2-7 Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Employed in Four-Year Institutions, by Race/Ethnicity, 2006, 48 3-1 Percentage Distribution of Public School Students Enrolled in Kindergarten Through 12th Grade by Race/Ethnicity: Selected Years, October 1972-October 2007, 57 3-2 Grade 8 TIMSS Average Math Scores by Race/Ethnicity, 58 3-3 Grade 8 TIMSS Average Math Scores by School Poverty Level, 58 3-4 TIMSS Grade 4 Math Racial/Ethnic Subgroup Comparison to All Participating Countries, 59

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xiv CONTENTS 3-5 Percentage of Students with Core Course Work During High School by Race/Ethnicity, 1999 and 2009, 85 3-6 Access to AP by Race/Ethnicity—U.S. Public Schools: High School Class of 2009, 86 3-7 Percentage of High School Students Taking Pre-Calculus by Race/ Ethnicity: 1999 and 2009, 87 4-1 Fall Undergraduate Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, by Race/Ethnicity, 1976-2004, 92 5-1 Source of Financial Aid Received by Undergraduates: 2007- 2008, 107 5-2 Full-Time S&E Graduate Students by Field and Mechanism of Support: 2006, 115 5-3 U.S. Citizen and Permanent Resident Doctorate Recipients with Levels of Graduate School Debt Greater Than $30,000, by Broad Field of Study and Race/Ethnicity, 2008, 121 5-4 Graduate Coursework, Degrees Pursued, and Degrees Completed, LSAMP Participants Compared to National Underrepresented Minorities and National White and Asian American Graduates, 123 BOXES 1-1 Grand Challenges for Engineering, 18 1-2 Science, The Endless Frontier, 19 1-3 Lost at the Frontier: U.S. Science and Technology Policy Adrift, 20 1-4 The Context for Innovation and Competitiveness Policy, 21 3-1 Education Goals 2000, 55 3-2 Knowledge Is Power (KIPP) Program, 67 3-3 For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (FIRST) Program, 68 3-4 Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) Program, 69 3-5 Indigenous Education Institute, 70 3-6 The El Paso Collaborative for Academic Excellence, 71 4-1 No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal, 96 4-2 Aiming High, 96 4-3 Why African American Students Should Major in Biomedical Research, 101

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xv CONTENTS 5-1 Financial Support of Doctoral Completion, 118 6-1 A Seven-Step Plan to Lower College Dropout Rates, 131 6-2 Broadening Participation in Graduate School, 132 7-1 Rice University Computational and Applied Mathematics Program, 152 7-2 Minority-Serving Institutions, 155 7-3 Life-Gets-Better at Florida A&M University, 157 7-4 Windows of Opportunity, Miami Dade College, 161 7-5 Selected Promising Interventions, 166 7-6 Review of Literature on Student Support, 168 F-1 Four Key Strands in K-8 Science Education, 242 F-2 Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, 243

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