nonprofit organization whose mission is to increase the number of American Indian scientists and engineers. She received a BA in civil engineering from the University of New Mexico and worked at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories before she earned an MA in structural engineering from Stanford. She subsequently worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory before joining Sandia. Begay-Campbell has served on two committees for the National Academy of Engineering, the Committee on Diversity of the Engineering Workforce, and the Committee on Engineering Studies at Tribal Colleges.


BEATRIZ CHU CLEWELL, director of the Program for Evaluation and Equity Research (PEER) and principal research associate in the Urban Institute’s Education Policy Center, is a leading expert on breaking barriers to move more women and underrepresented minorities into the science and technology workforce. Her recent journal article, “Taking Stock: Where We’ve Been, Where We Are, Where We’re Going,” traces women’s progress in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) over the past decade. She is also an author of a 2005 review of mathematics and science curricula and professional development models for middle and high school levels proven effective in increasing student achievement. An author of Breaking the Barriers: Helping Female and Minority Students Succeed in Mathematics and Science, she explored the theoretical and empirical foundations of intervention programs to increase the success of women and underrepresented minorities in science and mathematics. In 2007 she published Effective Schools in Poor Neighborhoods: Defying Demographics, Achieving Success. Dr. Clewell received a BA in English literature and a PhD in educational policy from Florida State University. She was a senior research scientist at Educational Testing Service for 12 years before joining the Urban Institute and, on leave from that organization, served at the National Science Foundation as Executive Director of a bipartisan commission on the status of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in STEM (CAWMSET). She served on the Committee on Science Education K-12 and the Committee on NASA Education Program Outcomes Study for the NRC. Dr. Clewell has been the principal investigator for several formal evaluations of major NSF intervention programs to increase the participation of women and minorities in STEM, including the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP), the Program for Women and Girls, and HBCU-UP.


NANCY S. GRASMICK is Maryland’s first female State Superintendent of Schools. She has served in that post since 1991. Dr. Grasmick’s career in education began as a teacher of deaf children at the William S. Baer School in Baltimore City. She subsequently served as a classroom and resource teacher,



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