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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Appendix A Timeline of U.S.-Chinese Cooperation on Clean Energy and Climate Change* Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1979 Scientific and Technology Cooperative Agreement Official bilateral governmental agreement established by President Carter and Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping Started with focus on high-energy physics. Served as an umbrella for 30 subsequent bilateral environment and energy protocols. Extended for five years in 1991. 1979 MOU for Bilateral Energy Agreements DOE and China’s SDPC Led to 19 cooperative agreements on energy, including fossil energy, climate change, fusion energy, energy efficiency, renewable energy, peaceful nuclear technologies, and energy information exchange. 1979 Atmosphere and Science and Technology Protocol NOAA and Chinese Meteorological Administration Bilateral climate and oceans data exchange, research, and joint projects. * This timeline is based on a timeline prepared for Lewis, J. 2010. “The State of U.S.-China Relations on Climate Change: Examining the Bilateral and Multilateral Relationship,” in China Environment Series 11, edited by J.L. Turner, Washington, DC: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1983 Protocol on nuclear physics and magnetic fusion DOE and SSTC Long-term objective to use fusion as an energy source. 1985, 2000, 2005–2010 Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Fossil Energy Research and Development (the Fossil Energy protocol) DOE and Ministry of the Coal Industry (later MOST) First major bilateral agreement on fossil energy. Now includes five annexes: power systems, clean fuels, oil and gas, energy and environment technologies, and climate science. Protocol is managed by the Permanent Coordinating Group including members of both countries. 1987 Annex III to the Fossil Energy Protocol Cooperation in the Field of Atmospheric Trace Gases DOE and CAS Cooperative research program on the possible effects of CO2 on climate change. 1988 Sino-American Conference on energy demand, markets, and policy in Nanjing LBNL/DOE and SPC/ERI Informal bilateral conference on energy efficiency that led to an exchange program between ERI and LBNL, and the first assessment of China’s energy conservation published by LBNL in 1989. 1992 U.S. Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade U.S. Department of Commerce Facilitate the development of commercial relations and related economic matters between the U.S. and China. The JCCT’s Environment subgroup supports technology demonstrations, training workshops, trade missions, exhibitions, and conferences to foster environmental and commercial cooperation. 1993 U.S. Commercial Mission to China U.S. DOE and Commerce For U.S. companies to promote their electric power technology services in China. Industry representatives identified a potential for $13.5 billion in U.S. electric power exports between 1994–2003 (not including nuclear power), equating to 270,000 high-salary U.S. jobs and an opportunity for introducing cost-effective, environmental sound U.S. technologies into China’s electric power industry.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1993 Establishment of the Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (BECon) ERI, LBNL, PNNL, WWF, EPA, WWFN, SPC, SETC, SSTC The first nongovernmental, nonprofit organization in China focusing on promoting energy efficiency by providing advice to central and local government agencies, supporting energy efficiency business development, creating and coordinating technical training programs, and providing information to energy professionals. 1994 Annexes to the fossil energy protocol DOE and SSTC To make positive contributions toward improving process and equipment efficiency, reduce atmospheric pollution on a global scale, advance China’s Clean Coal Technologies Development Program, and promote economic and trade cooperation beneficial to both parties Cooperation in coal-fired magnetoydrodynamic (MHD) power generation 1994 China’s Agenda 21 Document Released SSTC and China’s National Climate Committee Lay out China’s request for international assistance on environmental issues. The U.S. agreed to support China through DOE’s Climate Change Country Studies and Support for National Actions Plans programs. 1995 Series of DOE bilateral agreements signed by Secretary of Energy O’Leary Bilateral agreements on energy between DOE and Ministries: MOU on bilateral energy consultations (with SPC) Research on reactor fuel (with China Atomic Energy Authority) Renewable energy (with Ministry of Agriculture) Energy efficiency development (with SSTC) Renewable energy technology development (with SSTC) Coal bed methane recovery and use (with Ministry of the Coal Industry) Regional climate research (with the China Meteorological Administration) Also established: Plan for mapping China’s renewable energy resources (DOE and SPC) Strategies for facilitating financing of U.S. renewable energy projects in China (with DOE, SPC, Chinese and U.S. Ex-Im banks) Discussions on reducing and phasing out lead in gasoline in China (DOE, EPA with China’s EPA and SINOPEC)
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1995 (some annexes in 1996) Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization DOE and various ministries This Protocol has seven annexes: policy; rural energy (with Ministry of Agriculture); large-scale wind systems (with MOEP); hybrid village power; renewable energy business development (with SETC); geothermal energy; energy efficiency (with SPC); hybrid-electric vehicle development; and energy efficiency. Includes 10 teams of Chinese and U.S. government and industry representatives focusing on: energy policy, information exchange and business outreach, district heating, cogeneration, buildings, motor systems, industrial process controls, lighting, amorphous core transformers, finance. 1995-2000 Statement of Intent for statistical information exchange (later became a Protocol) DOE and NBS Five meetings to discuss energy supply and demand and exchange information on methods of data collection and processing of energy information. 1997 U.S.-China Forum on Environment and Development Established by Vice President Al Gore and Premier Li Peng Venue for high-level bilateral discussion on sustainable development. Established four working groups: energy policy, commercial cooperation, science for sustainable development, and environmental policy. Three priority areas for cooperative work: urban air quality, rural electrification, clean energy, and energy efficiency. 1998–ongoing Agreement of Intent on Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology (PUNT) DOE and SPC Paved the way for the exchange of information and personnel, training and participation in research and development in the field of nuclear and nuclear nonproliferation technologies. 1997 Energy and Environment Cooperation Initiative DOE and SPC Targeting urban air quality, rural electrification and energy sources, and clean energy sources and energy efficiency. Involved multiple agencies and participants from business sectors and linked energy development and environmental protection. 1997 U.S.-China Energy and Environmental Center Tsinghua University and Tulane University, with DOE and SSTC/MOST An initiative centered at Tsinghua and Tulane Universities co-funded by DOE and MOST to (1) provide training programs in environmental policies, legislation, and technology, (2) develop markets for U.S. clean coal technologies, and (3) help minimize the local, regional, and global environmental impact of China’s energy consumption.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1998 Joint Statement on Military Environmental Protection U.S. Secretary of defense and vice-chairman of Chinese Central Military Commission MOU provides for the exchange of visits by high-level defense officials and the opening of a dialogue on how to address common environmental problems. 1999 U.S.-China Forum on Environment and Development The U.S. Export-Import Bank, DOE, the China Development Bank, and the State Development Planning Commission The second meeting of the Forum in Washington, co-chaired by Vice President Al Gore and Premier Zhu Rongji. Two key agreements that came out of the meeting related to renewable energy included a MOU for the establishment of a $100 Million Clean Energy Program to accelerate the deployment of clean U.S. technologies to China in the area of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and pollution reduction; and a Statement of Intent on Cleaner Air and Cleaner Energy Technology Cooperation, focused on energy efficiency improvements in industrial coal-fired boilers; clean coal technology; high-efficiency electric motors; and grid-connected wind electric power. 1999-2000 Fusion Program of Cooperation DOE and CAS Plasma physics, fusion technology, advanced design studies, and materials research. 2002-2003 U.S.-China Fusion Bilateral Program DOE and CAS Plasma physics, fusion technology, and power plant studies. 2003 FutureGEN DOE with many international partners Initially an IGCC plus CCS plant restructured in January 2008 as potential federal funding to support CCS on a privately funded IGCC or PC plant. Companies can bid for participation and funding. 2004 U.S.-China Energy Policy Dialogue DOE and NDRC Resumed the former Energy Policy Consultations under the 1995 DOE-SPC MOU. Led to an MOU between DOE and NDRC on Industrial Energy Efficiency Cooperation and includes energy audits of up to 12 of China’s most energy-intensive enterprises, as well as training and site visits in the U.S. to train auditors. 2004 U.S.-China Green Olympic Cooperation Working Group DOE, Beijing Government Included opportunities for DOE to assist China with physical protection of nuclear and radiological materials and facilities for the Beijing Olympics as DOE had done in Athens.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2006 Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate U.S., China + India, Japan, Korea, Australia (later Canada) Created public-private task forces around specific sectors; Aluminum, Buildings and Appliances, Cement, Cleaner Use of Fossil Energy, Coal Mining, Power Generation and Transmission, Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation, Steel. 2006 U.S.-China Strategic Economic Dialogue Vice Premier Wu Yi and U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson. Includes DOE, EPA, NDRC, MOST Bi-annual, cabinet-level dialogue that includes an energy and environment track. 2007 MOU on Cooperation on the Development of Biofuels USDA and NDRC Encourages cooperation in biomass and feedstock production and sustainability; conversion technology and engineering; bio-based product development and utilization standards; and rural and agricultural development strategies. 2007 U.S.-China Bilateral Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperative Action Plan DOE and NDRC To compliment discussions under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNDP) toward the expansion of peaceful, proliferation-resistant nuclear energy for greenhouse gas emissions-free, sustainable electricity production. Bilateral discussions include separations technology, fuels and materials development, fast reactor technology, and safeguards planning. 2007 U.S.-China Westinghouse nuclear reactor agreement DOE, State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) DOE approved the sale of 4 × 1,100-megawatt AP-1000 nuclear power plants, which use a recently improved version of existing Westinghouse pressurized water reactor technology. The contract was valued at $8 billion and included technology transfer to China. The four reactors are to be built between 2009 and 2015.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2008 Ten-Year Energy and Environment Cooperation Framework (SED IV) DOE, Treasury, State Commerce, EPA, NDRC, State Forestry Administration, National Energy administration, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environmental Protection, MOST, and MFA Establishes five joint task forces on the five functional areas of the framework: (1) clean efficiency and secure electricity production and transmission, (2) clean water, (3) clean air, (4) clean and efficient transportation, and (5) conservation of forest and wetland ecosystems. 2009 U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue U.S. Department of State and Department of Treasury, China Ministry of Foreign Affairs In April 2009 the SED was re-branded as the Strategic and Economic Dialogue, with the U.S. State and Treasury Departments now co-chairing the dialogue for the United States. Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton were joined for the first July 2009 dialogue by their respective Chinese co-chairs, State Councilor Dai Bingguo and Vice Premier Wang Qishan, which covered a range of strategic and economic issues.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 Memorandum of Understanding to Enhance Cooperation on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment U.S. Department of State and Department of Energy and the China National Development and Reform Commission To strengthen and coordinate respective efforts to combat global climate change, promote clean and efficient energy, protect the environment and natural resources, and support environmentally sustainable and low-carbon economic growth. Both countries resolve to pursue areas of cooperation where joint expertise, resources, research capacity and combined market size can accelerate progress toward mutual goals. These include, but are not limited to: Energy conservation and energy efficiency Renewable energy Cleaner uses of coal and carbon capture and storage Sustainable transportation, including electric vehicles Modernization of the electrical grid Joint research and development of clean energy technologies Clean air Clean water Natural resource conservation, e.g., protection of wetlands and nature reserves Combating climate change and promoting low-carbon economic growth This MOU is to be implemented via the existing Ten Year Cooperation Framework on Energy and Environment Cooperation, and a newly established Climate Change Policy Dialogue, as well as new agreements forthcoming. 2009 Climate Change Policy Dialogue Representatives of the two countries’ leaders (TBD) The United States and China will work together to further promote the full, effective, and sustained implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The dialogue will promote (1) discussion and exchange of views on domestic strategies and policies for addressing climate change; (2) practical solutions for promoting the transition to low-carbon economies; (3) successful international negotiations on climate change; (4) joint research, development, deployment, and transfer, as mutually agreed, of climate-friendly technologies; (5) cooperation on specific projects; (6) adaptation to climate change; (7) capacity building and the raising of public awareness; and (8) pragmatic cooperation on climate change between cities, universities, provinces, and states of the two countries.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 Memorandum of Cooperation to Build Capacity to Address Climate Change NDRC and EPA In support of the MOU to Enhance Cooperation on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment, this five-year agreement includes: (1) capacity building for developing greenhouse gas inventories; (2) education and public awareness of climate change; (3) impacts of climate change to economic development, human health, and ecological system, as well as research on corresponding countermeasures; and (4) other areas as determined by the participants. 2009 U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade Co-chaired by U.S. Dept of Commerce Secretary Locke, U.S. Trade Representative Kirk, Chinese Vice Premier Wang Qishan, with participation from many Ministries/Agencies from both countries The Commission met in October 2009 in Hangzhou, China, and reached multiple agreements in many sectors, including, in the clean energy sector, for China to remove its local content requirements on wind turbines. 2009 U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center DOE, China MOST, Chinese National Energy Agency First announced in July 2009 during Secretary Chu’s visit to Beijing and finalized during the November 2009 Presidential Summit, the Center will facilitate joint research and development of clean energy technologies by teams of scientists and engineers from the United States and China, as well as serve as a clearinghouse to help researchers in each country. The Center will be supported by public and private funding of at least $150 million over five years, split evenly between the two countries. Initial research priorities will be building energy efficiency, clean coal including carbon capture and storage, and clean vehicles. 2009 U.S.-China Electric Vehicles Initiative TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Summit and building on the first-ever U.S.-China Electric Vehicle Forum in September 2009, the initiative will include joint standards development, demonstration projects in more than a dozen cities, technical roadmapping, and public education projects.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Summit, the plan calls for the two countries to work together to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, industrial facilities, and consumer appliances. U.S. and Chinese officials will work together and with the private sector to develop energy efficient building codes and rating systems, benchmark industrial energy efficiency, train building inspectors and energy efficiency auditors for industrial facilities, harmonize test procedures and performance metrics for energy efficient consumer products, exchange best practices in energy efficient labeling systems, and convene a new U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum to be held annually, rotating between the two countries. 2009 U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Summit, the Partnership calls for the two countries to develop roadmaps for wide-spread renewable energy deployment in both countries. The Partnership will also provide technical and analytical resources to states and regions in both countries to support renewable energy deployment and will facilitate state-to-state and region-to-region partnerships to share experience and best practices. A new Advanced Grid Working Group will bring together U.S. and Chinese policymakers, regulators, industry leaders, and civil society to develop strategies for grid modernization in both countries. A new U.S.-China Renewable Energy Forum will be held annually, rotating between the two countries. 2009 21st Century Coal TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Summit, the two Presidents pledged to promote cooperation on cleaner uses of coal, including large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Through the new U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center, the two countries are launching a program of technical cooperation to bring teams of U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers together in developing clean coal and CCS technologies. The two governments are also actively engaging industry, academia, and civil society in advancing clean coal and CCS solutions.
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The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and the United States Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 Shale Gas Initiative TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Summit, the new U.S.-China Shale Gas Resource Initiative will use experience gained in the United States to assess China’s shale gas potential, promote environmentally sustainable development of shale gas resources, conduct joint technical studies to accelerate development of shale gas resources in China, and promote shale gas investment in China through the U.S.-China Oil and Gas Industry Forum, study tours, and workshops. 2009 U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP) A public-private partnership, including 22 companies as founding members Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Summit, the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program will leverage private-sector resources for project development work in China across a broad array of clean energy projects, to the benefit of both nations. More than 22 companies are founding members of the program. The ECP will include collaborative projects on renewable energy, smart grid, clean transportation, green building, clean coal, combined heat and power, and energy efficiency. Sources: Baldinger and Turner, 2002; DOE, 2006; Fredriksen, 2008; Price, 2008. See also http://www.energy.gov/news2009/documents2009/US-China_Fact_Sheet_Renewable_Energy.pdf; http://www.energy.gov/news2009/documents2009/U.S.-China_Fact_Sheet_CERC.pdf; http://fossil.energy.gov/international/International_Partners/China.html, http://www.energy.gov/news2009/8292.htm, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/126802.pdf, http://clinton6.nara.gov/1999/04/1999-04-08-fact-sheet-on-vice-president-and-premeir-zhrongji-forum.html, http://www.ustreas.gov/initiatives/us-china/, and http://www.ustr.gov/about-us/press-office/fact-sheets/2009/october/us-china-joint-commission-commerce-and-trade.
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