Appendix A
Timeline of U.S.-Chinese Cooperation on Clean Energy and Climate Change*

Year(s)

Name

Actors

Purpose

1979

Scientific and Technology Cooperative Agreement

Official bilateral governmental agreement established by President Carter and Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping

Started with focus on high-energy physics. Served as an umbrella for 30 subsequent bilateral environment and energy protocols. Extended for five years in 1991.

1979

MOU for Bilateral Energy Agreements

DOE and China’s SDPC

Led to 19 cooperative agreements on energy, including fossil energy, climate change, fusion energy, energy efficiency, renewable energy, peaceful nuclear technologies, and energy information exchange.

1979

Atmosphere and Science and Technology Protocol

NOAA and Chinese Meteorological Administration

Bilateral climate and oceans data exchange, research, and joint projects.

*

This timeline is based on a timeline prepared for Lewis, J. 2010. “The State of U.S.-China Relations on Climate Change: Examining the Bilateral and Multilateral Relationship,” in China Environment Series 11, edited by J.L. Turner, Washington, DC: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.



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Appendix A Timeline of U.S.-Chinese Cooperation on Clean Energy and Climate Change* Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1979 Scientific Official Started with focus on high-energy physics. and bilateral Served as an umbrella for 30 subsequent bilateral Technology governmental environment and energy protocols. Extended for Cooperative agreement five years in 1991. Agreement established by President Carter and Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping 1979 MOU for DOE and Led to 19 cooperative agreements on energy, Bilateral China’s SDPC including fossil energy, climate change, fusion Energy energy, energy efficiency, renewable energy, Agreements peaceful nuclear technologies, and energy information exchange. 1979 Atmosphere NOAA and Bilateral climate and oceans data exchange, and Science Chinese research, and joint projects. and Meteorological Technology Administration Protocol *This timeline is based on a timeline prepared for Lewis, J. 2010. “The State of U.S.-China Rela - tions on Climate Change: Examining the Bilateral and Multilateral Relationship,” in China Environ - ment Series 11, edited by J.L. Turner, Washington, DC: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 05

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06 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1983 Protocol DOE and Long-term objective to use fusion as an energy on nuclear SSTC source. physics and magnetic fusion 1985, Protocol on DOE and First major bilateral agreement on fossil energy. 2000, Cooperation Ministry of the Now includes five annexes: power systems, 2005– in the Field Coal Industry clean fuels, oil and gas, energy and environment 2010 of Fossil (later MOST) technologies, and climate science. Protocol is Energy managed by the Permanent Coordinating Group Research and including members of both countries. Development (the Fossil Energy protocol) 1987 Annex III DOE and CAS Cooperative research program on the possible to the Fossil effects of CO2 on climate change. Energy Protocol Cooperation in the Field of Atmospheric Trace Gases 1988 Sino- LBNL/DOE Informal bilateral conference on energy efficiency American and SPC/ERI that led to an exchange program between ERI and Conference LBNL, and the first assessment of China’s energy on energy conservation published by LBNL in 1989. demand, markets, and policy in Nanjing 1992 U.S. Joint U.S. Facilitate the development of commercial relations Commission Department of and related economic matters between the U.S. and on Commerce China. The JCCT’s Environment subgroup supports Commerce technology demonstrations, training workshops, and Trade trade missions, exhibitions, and conferences to foster environmental and commercial cooperation. 1993 U.S. U.S. DOE and For U.S. companies to promote their electric Commercial Commerce power technology services in China. Industry Mission to representatives identified a potential for $13.5 China billion in U.S. electric power exports between 1994–2003 (not including nuclear power), equating to 270,000 high-salary U.S. jobs and an opportunity for introducing cost-effective, environmental sound U.S. technologies into China’s electric power industry.

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07 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1993 Establishment ERI, LBNL, The first nongovernmental, nonprofit organization of the PNNL, WWF, in China focusing on promoting energy efficiency Beijing EPA, WWFN, by providing advice to central and local Energy SPC, SETC, government agencies, supporting energy efficiency Efficiency SSTC business development, creating and coordinating Center technical training programs, and providing (BECon) information to energy professionals. 1994 Annexes to DOE and (1) To make positive contributions toward the fossil SSTC improving process and equipment efficiency, energy reduce atmospheric pollution on a global scale, protocol advance China’s Clean Coal Technologies Development Program, and promote economic and trade cooperation beneficial to both parties (2) Cooperation in coal-fired magnetoydrodynamic (MHD) power generation 1994 China’s SSTC and Lay out China’s request for international assistance Agenda 21 China’s on environmental issues. The U.S. agreed to Document National support China through DOE’s Climate Change Released Climate Country Studies and Support for National Actions Committee Plans programs. 1995 Series Bilateral agreements on energy between DOE and Ministries: of DOE (1) MOU on bilateral energy consultations (with SPC) bilateral (2) Research on reactor fuel (with China Atomic Energy Authority) agreements (3) Renewable energy (with Ministry of Agriculture) signed by (4) Energy efficiency development (with SSTC) Secretary (5) Renewable energy technology development (with SSTC) of Energy (6) Coal bed methane recovery and use (with Ministry of the Coal O’Leary Industry) (7) Regional climate research (with the China Meteorological Administration) Also established: -Plan for mapping China’s renewable energy resources (DOE and SPC) -Strategies for facilitating financing of U.S. renewable energy projects in China (with DOE, SPC, Chinese and U.S. Ex-Im banks) -Discussions on reducing and phasing out lead in gasoline in China (DOE, EPA with China’s EPA and SINOPEC)

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08 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1995 Protocol for DOE and This Protocol has seven annexes: policy; rural (some Cooperation various energy (with Ministry of Agriculture); large-scale annexes in the Fields ministries wind systems (with MOEP); hybrid village power; in of Energy renewable energy business development (with 1996) Efficiency SETC); geothermal energy; energy efficiency and (with SPC); hybrid-electric vehicle development; Renewable and energy efficiency. Includes 10 teams of Energy Chinese and U.S. government and industry Technology representatives focusing on: energy policy, Development information exchange and business outreach, and district heating, cogeneration, buildings, motor Utilization systems, industrial process controls, lighting, amorphous core transformers, finance. 1995- Statement DOE and NBS Five meetings to discuss energy supply and 2000 of Intent for demand and exchange information on methods statistical of data collection and processing of energy information information. exchange (later became a Protocol) 1997 U.S.-China Established by Venue for high-level bilateral discussion on Forum on Vice President sustainable development. Established four Environment Al Gore and working groups: energy policy, commercial and Premier Li cooperation, science for sustainable development, Development Peng and environmental policy. Three priority areas for cooperative work: urban air quality, rural electrification, clean energy, and energy efficiency. 1998– Agreement DOE and SPC Paved the way for the exchange of information and ongoing of Intent on personnel, training and participation in research Cooperation and development in the field of nuclear and nuclear Concerning nonproliferation technologies. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology (PUNT) 1997 Energy and DOE and SPC Targeting urban air quality, rural electrification Environment and energy sources, and clean energy sources Cooperation and energy efficiency. Involved multiple agencies Initiative and participants from business sectors and linked energy development and environmental protection. 1997 U.S.-China Tsinghua An initiative centered at Tsinghua and Tulane Energy and University Universities co-funded by DOE and MOST to Environmental and Tulane (1) provide training programs in environmental Center University, policies, legislation, and technology, (2) develop with DOE and markets for U.S. clean coal technologies, and SSTC/MOST (3) help minimize the local, regional, and global environmental impact of China’s energy consumption.

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0 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 1998 Joint U.S. Secretary MOU provides for the exchange of visits by Statement of defense and high-level defense officials and the opening of a on Military vice-chairman dialogue on how to address common environmental Environmental of Chinese problems. Protection Central Military Commission 1999 U.S.-China The U.S. The second meeting of the Forum in Washington, Forum on Export-Import co-chaired by Vice President Al Gore and Premier Environment Bank, DOE, Zhu Rongji. Two key agreements that came and the China out of the meeting related to renewable energy Development Development included a MOU for the establishment of a $100 Bank, and Million Clean Energy Program to accelerate the the State deployment of clean U.S. technologies to China Development in the area of energy efficiency, renewable energy, Planning and pollution reduction; and a Statement of Intent Commission on Cleaner Air and Cleaner Energy Technology Cooperation, focused on energy efficiency improvements in industrial coal-fired boilers; clean coal technology; high-efficiency electric motors; and grid-connected wind electric power. 1999- Fusion DOE and CAS Plasma physics, fusion technology, advanced 2000 Program of design studies, and materials research. Cooperation 2002- U.S.-China DOE and CAS Plasma physics, fusion technology, and power plant 2003 Fusion studies. Bilateral Program 2003 FutureGEN DOE with Initially an IGCC plus CCS plant restructured many in January 2008 as potential federal funding to international support CCS on a privately funded IGCC or PC partners plant. Companies can bid for participation and funding. 2004 U.S.-China DOE and Resumed the former Energy Policy Consultations Energy NDRC under the 1995 DOE-SPC MOU. Led to an MOU Policy between DOE and NDRC on Industrial Energy Dialogue Efficiency Cooperation and includes energy audits of up to 12 of China’s most energy-intensive enterprises, as well as training and site visits in the U.S. to train auditors. 2004 U.S.-China DOE, Beijing Included opportunities for DOE to assist China Green Government with physical protection of nuclear and radiological Olympic materials and facilities for the Beijing Olympics as Cooperation DOE had done in Athens. Working Group

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0 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2006 Asia-Pacific U.S., China Created public-private task forces around specific Partnership + India, sectors; Aluminum, Buildings and Appliances, on Clean Japan, Korea, Cement, Cleaner Use of Fossil Energy, Coal Development Australia (later Mining, Power Generation and Transmission, and Climate Canada) Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation, Steel. 2006 U.S.-China Vice Premier Bi-annual, cabinet-level dialogue that includes an Strategic Wu Yi and energy and environment track. Economic U.S. Treasury Dialogue Secretary Henry Paulson. Includes DOE, EPA, NDRC, MOST 2007 MOU on USDA and Encourages cooperation in biomass and feedstock Cooperation NDRC production and sustainability; conversion on the technology and engineering; bio-based product Development development and utilization standards; and rural of Biofuels and agricultural development strategies. 2007 U.S.-China DOE and To compliment discussions under the Global Bilateral NDRC Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNDP) toward the Civil Nuclear expansion of peaceful, proliferation-resistant Energy nuclear energy for greenhouse gas emissions- Cooperative free, sustainable electricity production. Bilateral Action Plan discussions include separations technology, fuels and materials development, fast reactor technology, and safeguards planning. 2007 U.S.-China DOE, State DOE approved the sale of 4 x 1,100-megawatt Westinghouse Nuclear Power AP-1000 nuclear power plants, which use a nuclear Technology recently improved version of existing Westinghouse reactor Corporation pressurized water reactor technology. The contract agreement (SNPTC) was valued at $8 billion and included technology transfer to China. The four reactors are to be built between 2009 and 2015.

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 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2008 Ten-Year DOE, Establishes five joint task forces on the five Energy and Treasury, State functional areas of the framework: (1) clean Environment Commerce, efficiency and secure electricity production Cooperation EPA, NDRC, and transmission, (2) clean water, (3) clean air, Framework State Forestry (4) clean and efficient transportation, and (5) (SED IV) Administration, conservation of forest and wetland ecosystems. National Energy administration, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environmental Protection, MOST, and MFA 2009 U.S.-China U.S. In April 2009 the SED was re-branded as the Strategic and Department Strategic and Economic Dialogue, with the U.S. Economic of State and State and Treasury Departments now co-chairing Dialogue Department the dialogue for the United States. Treasury of Treasury, Secretary Timothy F. Geithner and Secretary of China Ministry State Hillary Rodham Clinton were joined for the of Foreign first July 2009 dialogue by their respective Chinese Affairs co-chairs, State Councilor Dai Bingguo and Vice Premier Wang Qishan, which covered a range of strategic and economic issues.

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 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 Memorandum U.S. To strengthen and coordinate respective efforts of Department to combat global climate change, promote clean Understanding of State and and efficient energy, protect the environment and to Enhance Department of natural resources, and support environmentally Cooperation Energy and the sustainable and low-carbon economic growth. Both on Climate China National countries resolve to pursue areas of cooperation Change, Development where joint expertise, resources, research capacity Energy and Reform and combined market size can accelerate progress and the Commission toward mutual goals. These include, but are not Environment limited to: (1) Energy conservation and energy efficiency (2) Renewable energy (3) Cleaner uses of coal and carbon capture and storage (4) Sustainable transportation, including electric vehicles (5) Modernization of the electrical grid (6) Joint research and development of clean energy technologies (7) Clean air (8) Clean water (9) Natural resource conservation, e.g., protection of wetlands and nature reserves (10) Combating climate change and promoting low-carbon economic growth This MOU is to be implemented via the existing Ten Year Cooperation Framework on Energy and Environment Cooperation, and a newly established Climate Change Policy Dialogue, as well as new agreements forthcoming. 2009 Climate Representatives The United States and China will work together to Change of the two further promote the full, effective, and sustained Policy countries’ implementation of the United Nations Framework Dialogue leaders (TBD) Convention on Climate Change. The dialogue will promote (1) discussion and exchange of views on domestic strategies and policies for addressing climate change; (2) practical solutions for promoting the transition to low-carbon economies; (3) successful international negotiations on climate change; (4) joint research, development, deployment, and transfer, as mutually agreed, of climate-friendly technologies; (5) cooperation on specific projects; (6) adaptation to climate change; (7) capacity building and the raising of public awareness; and (8) pragmatic cooperation on climate change between cities, universities, provinces, and states of the two countries.

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 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 Memorandum NDRC and In support of the MOU to Enhance Cooperation of EPA on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment, Cooperation this five-year agreement includes: (1) capacity to Build building for developing greenhouse gas inventories; Capacity (2) education and public awareness of climate to Address change; (3) impacts of climate change to economic Climate development, human health, and ecological Change system, as well as research on corresponding countermeasures; and (4) other areas as determined by the participants. 2009 U.S.-China Co-chaired The Commission met in October 2009 in Joint by U.S. Dept Hangzhou, China, and reached multiple agreements Commission of Commerce in many sectors, including, in the clean energy on Secretary sector, for China to remove its local content Commerce Locke, requirements on wind turbines. and Trade U.S. Trade Representative Kirk, Chinese Vice Premier Wang Qishan, with participation from many Ministries/ Agencies from both countries 2009 U.S.-China DOE, China First announced in July 2009 during Secretary Clean Energy MOST, Chu’s visit to Beijing and finalized during the Research Chinese November 2009 Presidential Summit, the Center Center National will facilitate joint research and development of Energy Agency clean energy technologies by teams of scientists and engineers from the United States and China, as well as serve as a clearinghouse to help researchers in each country. The Center will be supported by public and private funding of at least $150 million over five years, split evenly between the two countries. Initial research priorities will be building energy efficiency, clean coal including carbon capture and storage, and clean vehicles. 2009 U.S.-China TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Electric Summit and building on the first-ever U.S.-China Vehicles Electric Vehicle Forum in September 2009, the Initiative initiative will include joint standards development, demonstration projects in more than a dozen cities, technical roadmapping, and public education projects.

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4 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 U.S.-China TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Energy Summit, the plan calls for the two countries to Efficiency work together to improve the energy efficiency Action Plan of buildings, industrial facilities, and consumer appliances. U.S. and Chinese officials will work together and with the private sector to develop energy efficient building codes and rating systems, benchmark industrial energy efficiency, train building inspectors and energy efficiency auditors for industrial facilities, harmonize test procedures and performance metrics for energy efficient consumer products, exchange best practices in energy efficient labeling systems, and convene a new U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum to be held annually, rotating between the two countries. 2009 U.S.-China TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Renewable Summit, the Partnership calls for the two Energy countries to develop roadmaps for wide-spread Partnership renewable energy deployment in both countries. The Partnership will also provide technical and analytical resources to states and regions in both countries to support renewable energy deployment and will facilitate state-to-state and region-to- region partnerships to share experience and best practices. A new Advanced Grid Working Group will bring together U.S. and Chinese policymakers, regulators, industry leaders, and civil society to develop strategies for grid modernization in both countries. A new U.S.-China Renewable Energy Forum will be held annually, rotating between the two countries. 2009 21st Century TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Coal Summit, the two Presidents pledged to promote cooperation on cleaner uses of coal, including large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Through the new U.S.- China Clean Energy Research Center, the two countries are launching a program of technical cooperation to bring teams of U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers together in developing clean coal and CCS technologies. The two governments are also actively engaging industry, academia, and civil society in advancing clean coal and CCS solutions.

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5 APPENDIX A Year(s) Name Actors Purpose 2009 Shale Gas TBD Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Initiative Summit, the new U.S.-China Shale Gas Resource Initiative will use experience gained in the United States to assess China’s shale gas potential, promote environmentally sustainable development of shale gas resources, conduct joint technical studies to accelerate development of shale gas resources in China, and promote shale gas investment in China through the U.S.-China Oil and Gas Industry Forum, study tours, and workshops. 2009 U.S.-China A public- Announced during the November 2009 Presidential Energy private Summit, the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Cooperation partnership, Program will leverage private-sector resources Program including 22 for project development work in China across a (ECP) companies broad array of clean energy projects, to the benefit as founding of both nations. More than 22 companies are members founding members of the program. The ECP will include collaborative projects on renewable energy, smart grid, clean transportation, green building, clean coal, combined heat and power, and energy efficiency. Sources: Baldinger and Turner, 2002; DOE, 2006; Fredriksen, 2008; Price, 2008. See also http:// www.energy.go/news00/documents00/US-China_Fact_Sheet_Renewable_Energy.pdf; http:// www.energy.go/news00/documents00/U.S.-China_Fact_Sheet_CERC.pdf; http://fossil.energy. go/international/International_Partners/China.html, http://www.energy.go/news00/8.htm, http://www.state.go/documents/organization/680.pdf, http://clinton6.nara.go//04/-04- 08-fact-sheet-on-ice-president-and-premeir-zhrongji-forum.html, http://www.ustreas.go/initiaties/ us-china/, and http://www.ustr.go/about-us/press-office/fact-sheets/00/october/us-china-joint-com- mission-commerce-and-trade.

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