ANNEX

Core Engineering Concepts, Skills, and Dispositions for K–12 Education, Various Sources

Source

Method

Design1

Cxs to STM

Eng & Society

Constraints

Communication2

System(s)

Systems thinking

Modeling

Optimization

Analysis

Collaboration/teamwork

Creativity

Knowledge of specific techs3

Nature of eng

Prototyping

Experimentation

Hacker et al. (2009)

International Delphi Study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Custer et al. (2009)

Literature review, focus groups, “reaction panel”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAE and NRC,4 2009

Consensus study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASEE CMC (2008)

Meetings of experts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Childress and Sanders (2007)

Literature review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Childress and Rhodes5 (2008)

Focus groups and modified Delphi study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sneider (2006)

Literature review, experience with curriculum development

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Koehler et al. (2005)

Not specified

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

8

6

5

5

5

2

2

4

4

4

3

3

3

2

2

2

1 Includes both understanding and doing design.

2 Communication includes use of computer and computer-based tools.

3 Includes one or more of the following categories of technology: information and communication, energy and power, transportation, food and medicine, construction.

4 The core concepts, skills, and dispositions from the study were taken from the three principles outlined in NAE and NRC, 2009, Chapter 6.

5 Participants in the Childress and Rhodes Delphi study achieved consensus on 43 “outcome items” for high school students hoping to purse engineering in college. Only those ranked 3.5 or higher (on a 5-point Likert scale) are included in the table.



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