• Simplify data collection and reporting requirements. Determine the most important data elements to collect during a public health emergency. Some information may be critical to the mission and associated data should be collected in all types of events, but other information may be able to be prioritized according to severity of incident and availability of resources.

  • Establish data collection forms for use in everyday practice that can also be used during public health emergencies.

  • Use seasonal influenza vaccination data from previous years to inform vaccination plans and help determine where additional outreach may be necessary. For example, LA County’s data showed that one area with a large African American population had the lowest number of seasonal flu immunizations, and this low rate was also found in the 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign.

  • Establish common performance metrics. “We need to know what we are striving for and how to measure that and how to know whether we are being successful,” said Jack Herrmann, senior advisor, Public Health Preparedness with the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). Consider nonempirical measures of success if prior data measures are unavailable.

  • Direct grantees (e.g., Chicago) should have access to data on their own area of control, rather than being aggregated with state data.

  • Bar coded and color code vaccine to reduce time and potential for errors in vaccine administration and data entry.

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