13 For 2009 U.S. potato chip sales of $7.1 billion, see https://www.aibonline.org/resources/statistics/2009snack.htm. For U.S. federal government spending on energy R&D of $5.1 billion, see American Energy Innovation Council, A Business Plan for America’s Energy Future, 2010.


14 Beijing’s Giant Airport Terminal To Open, BusinessWeek, February 27, 2008.


15 Measuring the Moment: Innovation, National Security, and Economic Competitiveness, The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation. Available at: http://futureofinnovation.org/PDF/BII-FINAL-HighRes-11-14-06_nocover.pdf.


16 N. Augustine, 2007.


17 R. Hira, U.S. Workers in a Global Job Market, Issues in Science and Technology, Spring 2009, Available at: http://www.issues.org/25.3/hira.html.


18 A. Grove, How to Make an American Job Before It’s Too Late, Bloomberg, July 1, 2010.


19 Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, The Atlantic Century: Benchmarking EU & U.S. Innovation and Competitiveness, February 2009. See: http://www.itif.org/files/2009-atlantic-century.pdf.


20 T. Meri, Eurostat: Statistics in Focus, 2009; Available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-09-025/EN/KS-SF-09-025-EN.PDF.


21 J. Adams, Science heads east, New Scientist, Volume 205, Issue 2742, January 9, 2010.


22 From R. Atkinson, The Globalization of R&D and Innovation: How Do Companies Choose Where to Build R&D Facilities? Testimony, Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, U.S. House of Representatives, October 4, 2007.


23 H. Fineberg, Address to The Academy of Medicine, Engineering & Science of Texas Annual Meeting, January 5, 2006.


24 T. Goldbrunner, Y. Doz, and K. Wilson The Well-Designed Global R&D Network, Strategy+Business, May 30, 2006.


25 For China, J.R. Wu, China’s Exports Turn Upward in December, The Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2010; for the United States, see: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/2010pr/01/ft900.pdf.


26 National Center for Education Statistics, Qualifications of the Public School Teacher Workforce: Prevalence of Out-of-Field Teaching 1987-1988 and 1999-2000, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2003.


27 Ibid.


28 D. Silver, General Motors Files Bankruptcy, WStreet.com, June 2, 2009. Available at: http://www.wstreet.com/investing/stocks/17551_general_motors_files_bankruptcy.html.


29 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators; Table A-3.5.


30 National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators: 2010, Arlington, VA, Appendix Table 7-9.


31 National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics: 2009, Washington, DC. See: http://www.nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_271.asp?referrer=list.

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