APPENDIX A
Some Perspectives

KNOWLEDGE CAPITAL

  • “Science is more essential for our prosperity, our security, our health, our environment, and our quality of life than it has ever been.”

    President Barack Obama

  • “Where nations once measured their strength by the size of their armies and arsenals, in the world of the future knowledge will matter most.”

    President Bill Clinton

  • “Basic scientific research is scientific capital.”

    Vannevar Bash

  • “… in today’s integrated and digitized global market, where knowledge and innovation tools are so widely distributed… . : Whatever can be done, will be done. The only question is will it be done by you or to you.”

    Thomas L. Friedman, Author, “The World Is Flat”

  • “Technology has been paying the bills in this country … we’re killing the goose that laid the golden eggs.”

    Stan Williams, Senior Fellow, Hewlett-Packard



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APPENDIX A Some Perspectives KNOWLEDgE CAPITAL • Science is more essential for our prosperity, our security, our health, our “ environment, and our quality of life than it has ever been.” President Barack Obama • Where nations once measured their strength by the size of their armies and “ arsenals, in the world of the future knowledge will matter most.” President Bill Clinton • “Basic scientific research is scientific capital.” Vannevar Bash • “. . . in today’s integrated and digitized global market, where knowledge and innovation tools are so widely distributed. . . . : Whatever can be done, will be done. The only question is will it be done by you or to you.” Thomas L. Friedman, Author, “The World Is Flat” • “Technology has been paying the bills in this country . . . we’re killing the goose that laid the golden eggs.” Stan Williams, Senior Fellow, Hewlett-Packard 

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rISING aBOVe THe GaTHerING STOrM, reVISITeD • “(Without a change in U.S. government policy) the next big thing will not be invented here. Jobs will not be created here. And wealth will not accrue here.” Paul Otellini, CEO, Intel Corporation • “We can already see the signs. Major drug companies such as Merck and Eli Lilly used to outsource much of their manufacturing to India and China: now they also outsource much of their research and engineering.” Walter Isaacson, Former Managing Editor of TIME • . . . we are killing engineering . . . it’s our future and we are throwing it “ down the drain.” Craig Barrett, Retired Chairman & CEO, Intel Corp. • “No country can lead in today’s world unless it leads in science.” Speaker Nancy Pelosi • Nanotechnology is an activity for which this government will not spare “ money.” Vladimir Putin, Prime Minister of Russia • . . . the value of Faraday’s work today must be higher than the capitaliza- “ tion of all shares on the stock exchange.” Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister, U.K. • It’s time we once again put science at the top of our agenda and work to “ restore America’s place as the world leader in science and technology.” President Barack Obama • The greatest long-term threat to U.S. national security is not terrorists “ wielding a nuclear or biological weapon, but the erosion of America’s place as a world leader in science and technology.” Gordon England, Former Deputy Secretary of Defense • “So many of the great inventions in the past in the United States came from labs like IBM and Bell Labs and so on. They are all disappearing . . . ” Tony Tan, former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore 0

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appeNDIx a • America’s economy is in crisis. We can either drown under the weight “ of the problem, or we can surf the wave of opportunity that it brings—to put science, engineering and innovation back in their rightful place in our economy.” Senator Edward Kaufman, Delaware • In terms of technological innovation and industrial creativity, the United “ States is not today the country it once was.” N. J. Slabbert, Co-author, “Innovation, The Key to Prosperity” • Ideas are the new currency in a worldwide knowledge economy.” “ Ben Wildavsky, Senior Fellow, Kauffman Foundaiton • The electric power sector is second from the bottom of all major U.S. " industries in terms of R&D spending as a percentage of revenue, exceeding only pulp and paper. The pet food industry, hotel industry and the insurance industry each invests in R&D at a higher rate than electrical power." Massoud Amin, Chair & Professor, University of Minnesota • Currently, China, Japan and South Korea are far outpacing the United “ States in manufacturing and producing the clean energy technologies that will underpin a new wave of economic growth.” Robert Atkinson et al., “Rising Tigers, Sleeping Giants” • If we’re number one in technology, why do I have to call India for tech “ support?” Jay Leno, Entertainer • “The search for talent and knowledge has gone global at a dizzying rate.” William E. Kirwan, Chancellor, University System of Maryland • “For decades the United States has enjoyed unquestioned leadership in vari- ous technologies required for military superiority. This is no longer true.” Richard Roca, Director, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 1

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rISING aBOVe THe GaTHerING STOrM, reVISITeD • The history of modernization is in essence a history of scientific and tech- “ nological progress. Scientific discovery and technological inventions have brought about new civilizations, modern industries, and the rise and fall of nations . . . I firmly believe that science is the ultimate revolution.” Wen Jiabao, Premier, People’s Republic of China • My partners and I found the best fuel cells, the best energy storage, and the “ best wind technologies were all born outside the United States…we need to restock the cupboard or be left behind.” John Doerr, Partner, Kleiner Perkins HUMAN CAPITAL • If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it “ expects what never was and never will be.” Thomas Jefferson • When I compare our high schools to what I see when I’m traveling abroad, “ I’m terrified for our workforce of tomorrow.” Bill Gates, Founder, Microsoft Corp. • “If you don’t solve (the K-12 education problem), nothing else is going to matter all that much.” Alan Greenspan, former Chairman, Federal Reserve • “ . . . we need young people—a smart kid coming out of school—instead of wanting to be an investment banker, we need them to decide they want to be an engineer, they want to be a scientist, they want to be a doctor or teacher.” President Barack Obama • If companies were run like many (K-12) education systems, they wouldn’t “ last a week.” Thomas Donohue, President, United States Chamber of Commerce 2

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appeNDIx a • We go where the smart people are. Now our business operations are two- “ thirds in the United States and one-third overseas. But that ratio will flip over (in) the next ten years.” Howard High, Spokesperson, Intel Corporation • Talent will be the oil of the 21st century.” “ Deborah Wince-Smith, President, Council on Competitiveness • “It’s not just that kids need to go to school, they need to learn in school.” Emiliana Vegas, Senior Education Economist, World Bank • The future of our nation and people depends not on just how well we “ educate our children generally, but on how well we educate them in math- ematics and science specifically.” Senator John Glenn, Ohio • I think we are in an education arms race with the rest of the world because “ knowledge will drive job creation. High wage jobs are only going to be cre- ated by people who can acquire knowledge.” Former Florida Governor Jeb Bush • I know that talking about (K-12) standards can make people nervous, but “ the notion that we have 50 different goal posts is absolutely ridiculous.” Arne Duncan, United States Secretary of Education • The growing education deficit is no less a threat to our nation’s long-term “ well-being than the current fiscal crisis.” Gaston Caperton, President of the College Board • “This (K-12 performance) is a prescription for economic decline, because we know that the countries that out-teach us today will outcompete us tomorrow.” President Barack Obama • “Every minute we wait, we fall further behind other countries.” Tom Luce, CEO, National Math and Science Initiative 

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rISING aBOVe THe GaTHerING STOrM, reVISITeD • The average pay of major college football coaches now stands at more than “ one million dollars . . . the average yearly salary for an engineering professor is $107,134 . . . and the average math professor earns $81,818.” Lyric Winik, Author • In a global economy, the best jobs are not going to go to the best in your “ class but to the best in the world. Some of the Asian countries are just out- standing in math and science achievement, and we’re way behind.” Gary Phillips, Chief Scientist, American Institutes for Research • “ . . . [many states are] lying to children and their parents, because states have dumbed down their standards.” Arne Duncan, United States Secretary of Education • . . . a good education is no longer just a pathway to opportunity—it is a “ prerequisite.” President Barack Obama • . . . the auto industry and our school system were built for another era . . “ . neither can compete in the 21st century.” Michael Bloomberg, Mayor, New York City • We expect parents to work in the best interest of the kids. We're working " in the best interest of the teachers." David Spohn, President, Hudson (Ohio) Education Association • If present conditions continue, the highest demographic shift in the 21st “ century will be in Asia—which will soon have the best engineers and doctors—and more specifically, China.” The Dilenschneider Group • When someone tells you that ‘Oh, math is not really my thing,’ respond “ back, ‘and working at McDonald’s isn’t mine.’” Danny Crichton, Stanford University Student • A decade ago, only one in a hundred leading Chinese scientists in the “ United States would have considered returning (to China). Today, half would.” Rao Yi, Dean of Life Sciences, Peking University 

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appeNDIx a • “The way we prepare students has barely changed in 100 years.” Bill Gates, Founder, Microsoft Corporation • Since 1995 the average mathematics score for fourth-graders jumped “ eleven points. At this rate we catch up with Singapore in a little over eighty years . . . assuming they don’t improve.” Norman R. Augustine, Retired Chairman & CEO, Lockheed Martin Corp. • “Every year 1.2 million students leave school, condemning themselves to a life of poverty and hardship. There are no good jobs for high school drop- outs. Indeed, there’s nothing much for high school grads.” Arne Duncan, United States Secretary of Education • “College is more valuable to the future economy than petroleum.” Gregg Easterbrook, Author • “An investment in education, designed to improve and increase students’ skills, is the best and most effective strategy for stimulating economic recovery.” Professor Eric Hanushek, Stanford University • . . . it’s hard to see a reason for defending the status quo—less than five “ percent of Detroit’s fourth- and eighth-graders were deemed proficient in math on the most recent (national) test.” Michael van Beeck, Author • We can no longer accept the bottom third of students becoming our teach- “ ers and expect successes.” Bill Brock, former Secretary of Labor • You don’t hear many kids talking about being engineers.” “ Jim Whaley, President, Siemens Foundation • Your top 10 percent—your top 30,000 teachers—would be among the “ best in the world. Your bottom 30,000 should find another profession. And no one in this room can tell me who is in what category. That is a real problem.” Arne Duncan, United States Secretary of Education 5

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rISING aBOVe THe GaTHerING STOrM, reVISITeD • “ . . . when you need to hire 200 engineers, where do you find them? Well, we know where you find them—you find them in India, Russia, Singapore and China.” Keith Devlin, Stanford University • I find myself hiring talent for my companies abroad, not because I want to “ but because I can’t find qualified engineers and scientists in America.” Larry Bock, Entrepreneur • Nearly two-thirds of low-performing schools in 1989 were still low per- “ formers two decades later.” Tom Loveless, Brookings Institution • “All of us are going where the high IQ’s are.” Bill Gates, Founder, Microsoft Corporation • “We had more sports-exercise majors graduate than electrical engineering graduates last year. If you want to become the massage capital of the world, you’re well on your way.” Jeff Immelt, CEO, General Electric Co. • Folks, we're in trouble. If we were in private business, we'd be out of " business." Kenneth Burnley, CEO of the Detroit Public Schools • The United States now ranks 25th among 30 industrialized countries in “ math. If I told you your basketball team finished in 25th place, you’d be outraged.” Robert Wise , Former Governor, West Virginia • . . . contrary to . . . the impression that we exist in a world in which ‘tax- “ payers are willing to continually increase subsidies for higher education,’ state support of public universities nationally, on a per-student basis, has been declining for more than two decades and was at the lowest level in 25 years even before the current economic crisis. This comes at a time when demand for higher education continues to increase.” William E. Kirwan, Chancellor of the University of Maryland System 

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appeNDIx a • . . . of the seventy finalists in an NSA (National Security Agency)-backed “ computer coding contest, twenty were from China, ten from Russia and two from the USA.” Patrick Thibodeau, Computerworld • “The fate of empires depends on how they educate their children.” Aristotle THE INNOvATION ENvIRONMENT • . . . the great Silicon Valley innovation machine hasn’t been creating many “ jobs of late—unless you’re counting Asia, where American tech companies have been adding jobs like mad for years.” Andy Grove, former Intel CEO • Will America lead . . . and reap the rewards? Or will we surrender that “ advantage to other countries with clearer vision?” Susan Hockfield, President, MIT • We operate 144 plants in 80 countries producing the full line of P&G’s “ products and, until very recently, none of our top-rated plants has been located in the United States” R. Keith Harrison, Global Product Supply Officer, Procter & Gamble • “Patents are only important if you plan on being successful.” Sherman McCorkle, President, Technology Venture Corporation • “United States [helicopter] firms are increasingly finding themselves at a disadvantage in the world market when they have to compete against the all-new products of their non-United States competitors.” Forecast International • At this rate . . . we’ll be buying most of our wind generators and photovol- “ taic panels from China.” Arden Bement, former director, National Science Foundation 

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rISING aBOVe THe GaTHerING STOrM, reVISITeD • If the United States doesn’t get its act together, DuPont is going to go to the “ countries that do.” Chad Holliday, Retired Chairman and CEO, DuPont Corporation • We educate the best and the brightest and then we don’t give them a green “ card.” Michael Bloomberg, Mayor, New York City • Providing short-term recovery packages to the economy without also fixing “ the fundamental problems, such as education and investment in research, is like giving a candy bar to a diabetic.” Norman R. Augustine, Retired Chairman & CEO, Lockheed Martin Corp. • [We have] immigration policies that have our colleges educating the “ world’s best scientists and engineers and then, when these foreigners gradu- ate, instead of stapling green cards to their diplomas, we order them to go home and start companies to compete against ours.” Thomas L. Friedman, Author, “The World Is Flat” • Here, you see, it takes all the running you can do to keep in the same “ place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that.” The Red Queen, "Through the Looking-Glass," by Lewis Carroll A CATEgORY 5 STORM • “Where is Sputnik when we need it?” Bill Gates, Founder, Microsoft Corporation • . . . our present crisis is not just a financial meltdown crying out for a cash “ injection. We are in much deeper trouble. In fact, we as a country have become General Motors—as a result of our national drift. Look in the mir- ror: G.M. is us.” Thomas L. Friedman, Author, “The World Is Flat” 

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appeNDIx a • “Hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs have gone away, and they are not coming back.” Yash Gupta, Dean, Johns Hopkins Carey Business School • We’re better off taking lots of [employees] and moving them out of the “ United States as opposed to keeping them inside the United States” Steven Ballmer, CEO, Microsoft Corporation • “Years ago when I lived in California we used to say that California was twenty years ahead of the rest of the nation. I fear we may have been right.” Norman R. Augustine, Retired Chairman & CEO, Lockheed Martin Corp. • . . . the time for a remedy that puts Americans back to work, jump-starts “ our economy and invests in lasting growth is now.” President Barack Obama • “A gradual flow of economic power from West to East has turned into a flood.” The New York Times • “ . . . good jobs are disappearing faster than bad jobs.” Damon Silvers, AFL-CIO Policy Director • We do not know what people who have been displaced are actually going “ to do in the next five to ten years.” Ali Velshi, Chief Business Correspondent, CNN • They [other nations] have taken this recession [as an opportunity], not to “ talk about it, not to debate it, but to actually take steps . . . We must do exactly the same thing.” Chad Holliday, Retired Chairman and CEO, DuPont Corporation • If we spend one trillion dollars on a stimulus and just get better highways “ and bridges—and not a new Google, Apple, Intel or Microsoft—your kids will thank you for making it so much easier for them to commute to the unemployment office. . . . “ Thomas L. Friedman, Author, “The World Is Flat ” 

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rISING aBOVe THe GaTHerING STOrM, reVISITeD • [Outsourcing] . . . is not just a passing fancy . . . if you can find high quality “ talent at a third of the price, it’s not too hard to see why you do this.” Ron Rittenmeyer, Chairman of the Board, EDS • We’re well on our way to becoming America, the land of the free and the “ home of the unemployed.” Norman R. Augustine, Retired Chairman & CEO, Lockheed Martin Corp. • “The 19th century belonged to England, the 20th century belonged to the United States, and the 21st century belongs to China. Invest accordingly.” Warren Buffett 0