Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture High-Reward! Opportunities Committee on Biosciences Research in Agriculture Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985

OCR for page R1
National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This project was supported under Agreement No. 59-32R6-3-217 between the Agricul- tural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 85-60530 ISBN 0-309-03542-2 Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Committee on Biosciences Research in Agriculture RALPH W. F. HARDY (Chairman), BioTechnica International, Inc., and Cornell University C. EUGENE ALLEN, University of Minnesota CHARLES J. ARNTZEN, E. I. du Font de Nemours & Co., Inc. DALE E. BAUMAN, Cornell University OLLE BJORKMAN, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford WALTER E. BOLLENBACHER, University of North Carolina ROBERT H. BURRIS, University of Wisconsin JOHN E. CASIDA, University of California, Berkeley J. M. DALY, University of Nebraska WILLIAM C. DAVIS, Washington State University ROBERT M. GOODMAN, CaIgene, Inc. BERNARD O. PHINNEY, University of California, Los Angeles WILLIAM R. PRITCHARD, University of California, Davis GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR., Colorado State University WILLIAM H. STONE, Trinity University CHAMP B. TANNER, University of Wisconsin ANNE M. K. VIDAVER, University of Nebraska MILTON ZAITLIN, Corned University Subcommittee on Animal Science WILLIAM R. PRITCHARD (Subchairman) C. EUGENE ALLEN DALE E. BAUMAN Subcommittee on Plant Science ROBERT H. BURRIS (Subchairman) CHARLES J. ARNTZEN OLLE BJORKMAN . 111 WILLIAM C. DAVIS GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR. WILLIAM H. STONE ROBERT M. GOODMAN BERNARD O. PHINNEY CHAMP B. TANNER

OCR for page R1
Subcommittee on Plant Diseases and Insect Pests MILTON ZAlTLIN (Subchairman) WALTER E. BOLLENBACHER JOHN E. CASIDA Consultants J. M. DALY ANNE M. K. VIDAVER BRUCE HAMMOCK, University of California, Davis JAMES TRUMAN, University of Washington THOMAS WAGNER, Ohio University ROBERT K. WAS~NO, University of California, Davis Staff JAMES E. TAVARES, Project Officer PHILIP ROSS, Senior Staff Officer SELMA P. BARON, Staff Officer CARLA CARESON, Editor AIDA NEEL, Administrative Secretary 1V

OCR for page R1
Board on Agriculture WILLIAM T=. BROWN (ChairmanJ, Pioneer Hi-Bre~ international, inc. JOHN A. PINO (Vice ChairmanJ, inter-American Development Bank LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University ERIC T=. ELLWOOD, North Carolina State University JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Virginia Polytechnic institute an] State Univer- sity ROBERT G. CAST, Michigan State University EDWARD H. GLASS, Cornell University RALPH W. F. HARDY, BioTechnica international, Zinc., and Cornell University ROGER it. MITCHELL, University of Missouri CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Tnc. ELDOR A. PAUL, University of California, Berkeley VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota JAMES G. TEER, Welder Wildlife Foundation VIRGINIA WAEBOT, Stanford University CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Executive Director v

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Preface In April 1982 the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture began a major ongoing review by sponsoring an internal symposium aimed at defining comprehen- sive, long-range planning goals in bioregulation. The agency also recently completed a program document that includes an accompa- nying six-year implementation plan focused on more immediate goals in research.) As a part of this ongoing review and planning process, Terry B. Kinney, Ir., administrator of the ARS, requester! that the Board on Agriculture of the National Research Council undertake a study of the ARS research programs concerned with bioregulation. Admin- istrator Kinney asked that the board identify and recommend ARS programs in bioregulation that should be initiated or strengthened to ensure the highest dividends to agriculture. In the organization and execution of this request, bioregulation was interpreted broad- ly as basic studies of key processes in the biosciences. The Board on Agriculture appointed a committee of 18 members with wide-ranging expertise to undertake this study. The Commit- tee on Biosciences Research in Agriculture represents a breadth of knowledge across the disciplines of science and also represents a combination of experience in research, management, and adminis- tration in both academe and industry. The committee was divided into three subcommittees to explore current and proposed ARS research efforts on mechanisms that regulate the biology of animals, plants, and insects and plant U.S. Depallll~ent of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1983. Agricultural Research Service Program Plan: 6-Year Implementation Plan, 1984-1990. Miscellaneous publication number 1429. Washington, D.C. . V11

OCR for page R1
pathogens, respectively. Committee members interviewed a large number of research scientists and laboratory chiefs during 23 sepa- rate visits to 19 of the 147 ARS research centers throughout the United States and abroad (see Appendix). Some of these included ARS units that are affiliated with universities. Although it was not possible for subcommittee members to meet with all ARS scientists in each laboratory group, open periods were arranged during many site visits so that any ARS scientist who wished to present ideas on priority research areas had an opportun- ity to do so. At university-associated laboratories, discussions in- cludec! some of the university scientists who were conducting re- lated research. The committee members sought, through discussions with ARS scientists about both current and future programs, to obtain a clear view of the present capabilities of the ARS and to specify how these capabilities might be augmented to take advantage of the newer biotechnologies. They also recognized the importance of making recommendations about the conditions that combine to create an optimal climate for research, based on visits to ARS laboratories and on general experiences with changing climates in some of the outstanding laboratories practicing the new biology. Committee members were pleased with the open and enthusias- tic discussions that took place at all centers. The interest, coopera- tion, and contributions of ARS scientists were exemplary. It is significant to note that the final conclusionson both re- search opportunities and the optimal climate for basic researchof the Committee on Biosciences Research in Agriculture were pre- pared in response to the request from ARS, but they apply broadly to the agricultural research community. The conclusions are based on the thoughts and suggestions of many of the ARS scientists themselves, coupled with the experience and ideas of the commit- tee members. Although other reports have addressed new oppor- tunities in agriculture, especially in the plant sciences, this report provides a uniquely holistic view of agriculture, generated by an integrated committee of plant and animal scientists. Ralph W. F. Hardy Chairman . . ~ V111

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgments The committee wishes to express its appreciation to the ARS area and center directors, laboratory leaders, and scientists at the 19 locations visited for preparing background materials and research summaries for subcommittee members prior to their visits, and for assistance in organizing the visits. The committee acknowledges the staff of the Board on Agriculture Selma P. Baron, Staff Officer; Philip Ross, Senior Staff Officer; and lames E. Tavares, Project Officer and their support and guidance during committee meet- ings and subcommittee site visits. The committee wishes to thank Aida Neel, Project Secretary, for her technical support during meetings and in the preparation of this report. The committee members wish to express special gratitude to James E. Tavares and Carla CarIson, consultant and editor of this report, for drawing our ideas and conclusions into final form. 1X

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION... 2. MOLECULAR GENETICS AND GENETIC ENGINEERING .................................. Structure, Organization, and Expression of Genes, 12 Isolation, 12; Cloning, 13; Transfer, 14; Expression, 14 Opportunities in the Plant Sciences, 14 Gene Isolation, 15; Gene Transfer, 16; Cell Culture and Plant Regeneration, 19; Gene Expression, 20; Research Status, 23 Aspects of Molecular Genetics of Food Animals, 24 Gene Transfer, 25; Gene Identification and Cross Cloning, 27; Gene Expression, 28; Research Status, 29 Potential Impact on U.S. Agriculture, 30 3. ANIMAL SCIENCE Molecular Basis of Disease, 33 Genes Regulating the Immune Response, 34; Pathogens and Vectors, 37; Disease Control, 40; Research Status, 41 Molecular Basis for Metabolic Regulation, 43 Characterization of Endogenous Chemical Mediators, 43; Metabolic Control and Function of Cells, 44; Factors Influencing Intake and Digestion, 45; Research Status, 46 Ma 11 32

OCR for page R1
Developmental Biology and Reproduction, 48 Differentiation, 48; In Vitro Manipulation of Gametes and Embryos, 49; Addition of Genetic Information to Embryos, 50; Reproductive Efficiency, 51; Research Status, 52 4. PLANT SCIENCE .............................. Carbon and Nitrogen Input for Plant Growth, 55 Photosynthesis, 55; Chioroplast Functions, 56; Carbon Fixation, 56; Photosynthetic Efficiency, 58; Harvest Index, 60; Nitrogen Metabolism, 61; Biological Nitrogen Fixation, 62; Improving Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation, 63; Other Aspects of Nitrogen Metabolism, 65; Research Status, 66 Regulation of Plant Growth and Development, 68 Biosynthetic Pathways, 69; Gene Expression, 71; Cell Culture and Plant Regeneration, 73; Research Status, 74 Physicochemical Stress, 74 Plant Responses to Stress Factors, 76; Stress-Tolerance Mechanisms, 77; Research Status, 78 .. 54 5. PLANT DISEASES AND INSECT PESTS 81 Molecular Bases of Plant-Pathogen Interactions, 83 Molecular Determinants of Resistance and Susceptibility, 83; Molecular Basis of Cellular Damage in Susceptible Hosts, 88; Research Status, 91 Modification of Microorganisms for Biological Control and Organic Pesticide Disposal, 92 Microbial Agents for Biological Control, 92; Research Status, 95 Molecular Basis of Pesticide Action, 96 Research Status, 97 Insect Neurobiology and the Regulation of Development and Reproduction, 98 Insect Neurobiology, 98; Endocrine Regulation of Metamorphosis, Diapause, and Reproduction, 101; Research Status, 103 . '(11

OCR for page R1
6. THE OPTIMAL CLIMATE FOR BASIC RESEARCH . 105 Introduction, 105 Recommendations, 108 Periodic Outside Review, 108; Leadership, 109; National Program Staff, 109; New Centers, 110; Interdisciplinary Activities, 111; Consolidation, 111; Leveraging, 112; Postdoctoral Program, 112; Appointment of New Staff, 113; Budget' 113; Support Staff, 114; Sabbaticals/Retraining, 114; Scientific Meeting Attendance, 115; Publications, 115; University Relationships, 116; Industry Relationships, 116; Public Relations, 116 Conclusion, Il7 APPENDIX .... . . X111 ... 118

OCR for page R1