• the expansion of R&D capability in more industries, which is causing R&D investment to spread vertically in high-technology supply chains; and

  • the priorities of other countries to improve their R&D capacity and competitiveness.

In addition, although the U.S. innovation system today is much more collaborative than it was several decades ago and the federal government is playing a much more supportive and important role in innovation, total industry spending is now twice that of the federal government.

Chapter 2 examines issues that have dominated discussion of the influence of IP-based university technology transfers on university research norms and quality since the current system of institutional ownership and centrally administered licensing became the norm. Chapter 3 briefly addresses university implementation of the Bayh-Dole Act and federal oversight. Chapter 4 presents the committee’s findings and recommendations.

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