reporting requirement, observing that agencies already should have been tracking this information to comply with the Bayh-Dole Act.

Assessment of how the system is working should not depend wholly on agencies’ compliance with congressional mandates. Many of the government’s most sensitive and secure civilian data systems—for example, Census and even Internal Revenue Service records—are accessible by qualified independent researchers who agree not to disclose any identifying information. But that seems highly unlikely to occur if such access requires the consent of every data source.

CONCLUSIONS

Universities in the United States are very diverse in terms of size, research portfolio, and culture. Consequently, approaches to technology transfer must be framed squarely within the established mission of individual universities. The goal of technology transfer offices must be to advance the university’s success in learning, discovery, and societal engagement and to facilitate the transfer of publicly funded innovations into benefits for society. In evaluating their individual technology transfer offices, universities must measure themselves against their own mission and yet recognize that they are part of a larger education and research enterprise.



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