Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 93
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest Appendix C Biographical Information of Committee and Staff Mark S. Wrighton, Chair, is chancellor and professor of chemistry at Washington University in St. Louis. Prior to moving to Washington University in 1995, he was a member of the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) beginning in 1972. He was head of the Department of Chemistry at MIT from 1987 until 1990 when he was appointed provost. Dr. Wrighton was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1988 and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1986. In 2001, he was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society. Dr. Wrighton was a presidential appointee to the National Science Board (NSB) from 2000 to 2006, which serves as science policy advisor to the president and congress and is the primary advisory board to the National Science Foundation. While on the NSB, he chaired the Audit and Oversight Committee. He is co-author of the book entitled Organometallic Photochemistry and served as editor for the Physical Electrochemistry Division for the Journal of the Electro Chemical Society for three years. He served on the editorial advisory boards of Inorganic Chemistry, Chemical and Engineering News, Journal of Molecular Electronics, Chemtronics, Chemistry Materials, Inorganica Chimica Acta, and the Journal of Physical Chemistry and he was consulting editor for the textbook General Chemistry (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th editions). Dr. Wrighton holds a Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology. Mark C. Fishman (IOM), Vice-Chair, is President of the Novartis Institute for BioMedical Research (NIBR), and a member of the Executive Committee of Novartis, AG. From the NIBR headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, he leads worldwide drug discovery research activities in Europe, the US, and China. Prior to joining Novartis, Dr. Fishman was Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Chief of Cardiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and founding Director of the Cardiovascular Research Center of the MGH where Dr. Fishman's group discovered many of the genes that guide early embryonic organ development, by performing one of the first genetic screens in the model organism, the zebrafish. At Novartis, he has had the opportunity to introduce novel approaches to drug discovery, especially based in principles of developmental biology and translational medicine, and seen these mature into a rich pipeline of new medicines, some already registered for cancer, immunology, and neurology. Dr. Fishman is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, US. A graduate of Yale College and Harvard Medical School, he completed his Internal Medicine residency, Chief Residency, and Cardiology training at the MGH.
OCR for page 94
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest Craig A. Alexander is vice president and general counsel of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. As Head of HHMI’s legal office, he oversees a staff of attorneys who attend to all of the Institute’s legal affairs, including matters directly related to HHMI’s scientific endeavors, intellectual property, the transfer of scientific materials, and scientific collaborations. Promoted to his current position in January 2006, Mr. Alexander had served as HHMI’s deputy general counsel since 1994. Mr. Alexander joined HHMI as an associate general counsel in 1992 from the Indianapolis law firm of Sommer & Barnard, P.C. Before that, he handled many matters involving HHMI while an associate in the Washington, D.C. office of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison. A magna cum laude graduate of the Georgetown University Law Center, where he was an editor of the law journal, Mr. Alexander received a bachelor’s degree in accounting from Butler University in Indianapolis. He is also a certified public accountant. A member of the tax, science, and technology sections of the American Bar Association, Mr. Alexander is also a member of the National Association of College and University Attorneys. Margo Bagley is a Professor of Law at The University of Virginia School of Law, where she teaches a variety of intellectual property courses including patent law and international patent law and policy. Her scholarship has focused on a number of aspects of patent law, including university-industry technology commercialization issues, the role of morality in biotech patenting, access to essential medicines, and business method patents. Professor Bagley also has taught international patent law and policy in Germany, China and in Singapore. Professor Bagley is a registered patent attorney and practiced law with Smith, Gambrell & Russell, LLP and Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, LLP before becoming a law professor at Emory University in 1999. At Emory, she helped develop and implement the TI:GER (Technological Innovation: Generating Economic Results) multidisciplinary collaborative program for teaching technology commercialization in conjunction with faculty at the Georgia Institute of Technology; she joined the University of Virginia faculty in 2006. Prior to pursuing a career in law, Professor Bagley worked in products research and development at the Procter & Gamble Company and as a senior research analyst for the Coca-Cola Company. Professor Bagley holds a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin and a J.D. from Emory University. Wendy H. Baldwin is Vice President and director of the program on Poverty, Gender, and Youth at the Population Council. Dr. Baldwin works with the Council's regional directors and professional staff on program development, identifying policies and programs to improve the future of young people. She also represents the Council to governments, donor agencies, and population and development organizations. Dr. Baldwin joined the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1973, where she served as chief of the Demographic and Behavioral Sciences branch at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and eventually as the deputy director. She ended her NIH tenure
OCR for page 95
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest in 2003 as deputy director for extramural research for the NIH, directing the office responsible for extramural policies and procedures including Edison, the invention reporting system. She spent four years as the executive vice president for research at the University of Kentucky where she was responsible for the economic development and technology transfer activities. She has testified many times before Congress on topics from stem cells to adolescent pregnancy and has served on committees of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Department of Health and Human Services. For the past 20 years she has done work with the World Health Organization in different capacities. Alan Bennett is professor of Plant Sciences at UC Davis where he has been an active researcher, educator, policy advisor and technology transfer advocate. He has published over 150 scientific research papers in the area of plant molecular biology and is recognized as an “ISI Most Cited Author”. His research has focused on mechanisms of plant cell wall assembly and disassembly which has applications in diverse areas ranging from fruit development to optimization of biofuel feedstocks. Bennett is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and a Senior Fellow of the California Council for Science and Technology (CCST), a science policy advisory council for the State of California. He is also a Senior Advisor to Mars, Inc. and has extensive experience advising and crafting the research agenda of large multinational businesses as well as startup biotechnology companies. Bennett has also been a leader in establishing international research partnerships, particularly in Latin America. He was a primary proponent of a partnership between California and Chilean Universities for research and educational exchanges where he worked closely with the US Ambassador to Chile as well as the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs. He currently maintains an office in Chile under the auspices of the Fundacion Para la Innovacion Agraria to support university research and technology commercialization partnerships. Bennett has provided leadership in developing both State and National intellectual property policies. In 2007, he co-chaired a California task force to recommend a technology transfer policy for the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (stem cell research) and he recently served on the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the “Management of University Intellectual Property”. Bennett is currently working with the US Patent and Trademark Office to provide educational programs throughout the world to “foster innovation and competitiveness by delivering IP information and education in countries with immature IP protection systems”. Bennett co-founded and serves as Chairman of a private non-profit foundation (PIPRA Foundation) whose mission is to accelerate the deployment of technologies for improving the lives of the poor in developing countries. PIPRA Foundation now has support from the Bill and Melinda Gates’ Foundation and is a partner with the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) to establish the Global Responsibility Innovation Alliance (http://www.grialliance.org/). Bennett served for over 18 years in a range of
OCR for page 96
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest University of California leadership positions, including Department Chair, Divisional Associate Dean in the College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, University of California Systemwide Executive Director of Research Administration and Technology Transfer and Associate Vice Chancellor for Research at UC Davis. In these capacities, he has been responsible for research and teaching budgets, for establishing and overseeing research policy and for the management of a portfolio of over 5000 patented inventions, 700 active licenses and revenue in excess of $350MM. He earned B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Plant Biology at UC Davis and Cornell University. Wesley Marc Cohen is professor of economics and management at Duke University. After a year as Research Fellow in Industrial Organization at the Harvard Business School and twenty years teaching in Carnegie Mellon University’s Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Wesley Cohen (Ph.D., Economics, Yale University, 1981) joined the faculty of the Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, as Professor of Economics and Management in September 2002 and was named the Frederick C. Joerg Distinguished Professor of Business Administration in April, 2004. He also holds secondary appointments in Duke’s Department of Economics and School of Law, and is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Professor Cohen also serves as the Faculty Director of the Fuqua School’s Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation. With a research focus on the economics of technological change and R&D, Professor Cohen has examined the determinants of innovative activity and performance both within and across industries, considering the roles of firm size, market structure, firm learning, knowledge flows, university research and the means that firms use to protect their intellectual property. In recent years, much of his work has focused on the economics and management of intellectual property. He has published in numerous scholarly journals, including the American Economic Review, the Economic Journal, Science, the Review of Economics and Statistics, the Journal of Industrial Economics, the Administrative Science Quarterly, Management Science, Research Policy and the Strategic Management Journal. He also co-edited the volume, Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. He served for five years as a Main Editor for Research Policy and served on the National Academies’ Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy, and on the National Academies' Panel on Research and Development Statistics at the National Science Foundation. He has taught courses on the economics of technological change, industrial organization economics, policy analysis, organizational behavior, corporate strategy, entrepreneurship and the management of intellectual capital. Robert Cook-Deegan has been the Director of Duke University’s Center for Genome Ethics, Law & Policy in the Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy since July, 2002. Prior to coming to Duke, he was director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Fellowship program at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He worked at the National Academies in various capacities for
OCR for page 97
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest eleven years. He is the author of The Gene Wars: Science, Politics, and the Human Genome. Dr. Cook-Deegan was a congressional science fellow 1982-83, and spent six years at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. He received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry, magna cum laude, in 1975 from Harvard College, and his MD degree from the University of Colorado in 1979. Mark S. Kamlet is provost and professor of economics and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Kamlet joined Carnegie Mellon's central administrative team after eight-year tenure as dean of the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management. Dr. Kamlet became a member of the faculty in 1976 and was named a professor in 1989 with a joint appointment in the Heinz School and the College of Humanities and Social Sciences (H&SS). Before becoming dean of the Heinz School in 1993, Dr. Kamlet was associate dean of H&SS and head of its Department of Social and Decision Sciences. Dr. Kamlet served on a U.S. Public Health Service panel to produce national guidelines on applying cost-effectiveness analysis in health care and on three National Institute of Health (NIH) consensus panels to make recommendations on national policies relating to prenatal genetic testing, neonatal screening, and end of life care. He serves on the Institute of Medicine's Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Board, and the Institute’s Committee on Poison Prevention and Control. He was recently appointed by the director of NIH to be a member of the Public Access Working Group, which will monitor the impact of open access to results of NIH-funded research. He also has served as chairman of the board of Carnegie Learning and iCarnegie. Dr. Kamlet was instrumental in drafting rules and procedures for the Allegheny County Executive and County Council, and led the county's transition team in the area of information technology. He received his bachelor's degree in mathematics from Stanford University in 1974. Kamlet earned master's degrees in economics (1976) and statistics (1977) and a Ph.D. in economics (1980) from the University of California at Berkeley. Greg Kisor is vice president and portfolio architect at Intellectual Ventures where he focuses on a variety of projects relating to intellectual property and invention. Prior to joining Intellectual Ventures, Mr. Kisor spent 10 years at Intel Corporation where he held numerous jobs including Principal Engineer & Chief Patent Technologist. As Chief Patent Technologist he was responsible for IP strategy, portfolio developments and license negotiations. Prior to his role as Patent Technologist at Intel Mr. Kisor was the Lead architect for many of Intel’s products, including Video & Data Conferencing, Java Implementations, and Digital Video Strategy. Mr. Kisor was Chairman of the United States JPEG Committee and has held many high positions in International Standards, including Head of delegation to ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Image Compression Standards. Mr. Kisor also has held engineering and lead architect positions at National Semiconductor and IBM. Mr. Kisor currently holds 15 patents with many more pending and received his B.S.E.E. from the Brigham Young University in 1988.
OCR for page 98
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest David Korn (IOM) became Vice-Provost for Research of Harvard University in November 2008, where he is also Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School. Prior to that, he was senior vice president for biomedical and health sciences research at the Association of American Medical Colleges in Washington, D.C., a position he assumed on September 1, 1997. Dr. Korn served as Carl and Elizabeth Naumann Professor and Dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine from October 1984 to April 1995, and as Vice President of Stanford University from January 1986 to April 1995. Before that he had served as Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pathology at Stanford, and Chief of the Pathology Service at the Stanford University Hospital, since June 1968. Dr. Korn has been Chairman of the Stanford University Committee on Research; President of the American Association of Pathologists (now the American Society for Investigative Pathology), from which he received the Gold-Headed Cane award for lifetime achievement in 2006. Dr. Korn was a founder and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the California Transplant Donor Network, one of the nation's largest Organ Procurement Organizations, and a founder of the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and a founder of the Clinical Research Roundtable. Dr. Korn served on the Boards of Directors of the Stanford University Hospital from October 1982 to April 1995, the Children's Hospital at Stanford from October 1984 to its closure, and the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford from October 1984 to April 1995. He was a member of the Board of Directors of the California Society of Pathologists from 1983-86. He is co-chairman of the National Academies’ Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, on which he has been a member since its inception. Katharine Ku is Director of the Office of Technology Licensing (OTL) at Stanford University. OTL is responsible for the licensing of various state-of-the-art university technologies and industry sponsored research agreements, material transfer agreements and collaborations. In 2010, Stanford received $65.05 M in gross royalty revenue from 517 technologies, with royalties ranging from $3.00 to $37.95 M. Thirty-nine of the 517 inventions generated $100,000 or more in royalties. Three inventions generated $1M or more. OTL will likely evaluate more than 400 new invention disclosures in 2010. OTL spent $6.3M in legal expenses and concluded 77 new licenses. Of the new licenses, 31 were nonexclusive, 31 were exclusive and 15 were option agreements. OTL received equity from 9 licensees. From 1994-98, in addition to her OTL responsibilities, Ku was responsible for Stanford’s pre-award Sponsored Projects Office. Ku was Vice President, Business Development at Protein Design Labs, Inc. in Mountain View, California from 1990-1991. Prior to PDL, Ku spent 12 years at Stanford in various positions, worked at Monsanto and Sigma Chemical as a research scientist, administered a dialysis clinical trial at University of California, and taught chemistry and basic engineering courses. Ku has been active in the
OCR for page 99
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest Licensing Executive Society (LES), serving as Vice President, Western Region and Trustee of LES and various committee chairs. She also has served as President of the Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) from 1988-90. She received the AUTM 2001 Bayh-Dole Award for her efforts in university licensing. In 1999, Stanford OTL received the Licensing Executives Society Achievement Award for licensing, the Society’s most prestigious award. Ku was a member of the National Academy of Sciences committee which recently issued a report entitled Management of University Intellectual Property: Lessons from a Generation of Experience, Research, and Dialogue. She is the Secretary of the Certified Licensing Professional (CLP) Board of Governors. Ku has a B.S. Chemical Engineering (Cornell University), an M.S. in Chemical Engineering (Washington University in St. Louis) and is a registered patent agent. Edward D. Lazowska holds the Bill & Melinda Gates Chair in Computer Science & Engineering at the University of Washington. Dr. Lazowska received his A.B. from Brown University in 1972 and his Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in 1977, when he joined the University of Washington faculty. Dr. Lazowska's research and teaching concern the design, implementation, and analysis of high-performance computing and communication systems, and, more recently, data-intensive science. Dr. Lazowska has chaired the NSF CISE Advisory Committee, the DARPA Information Science and Technology Study Group, and the President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee. He is a member of the Microsoft Research Technical Advisory Board, and serves as a board member or technical advisor to a number of high-tech companies and venture firms. He is a Member of the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Twenty Ph.D. students and 23 M.S. students have completed degrees working with him. Marshall Phelps, Jr. recently retired as Microsoft Corporation's corporate vice president, IP Policy and Strategy. He was responsible for setting the global Intellectual Property Strategies and Policies for Microsoft Corporation. In addition, Phelps interfaces with governments, other companies in the technology industry and outside institutions to broaden awareness of intellectual property issues. Before transitioning to vice president in 2006, Phelps served as the deputy general counsel for intellectual property in Microsoft’s Legal & Corporate Affairs group, where he supervised Microsoft's intellectual property groups, including those responsible for trademarks, trade secrets, patents, licensing, standards and copyrights. He oversaw the company's management of its intellectual property portfolio, which comprises some 13,000 patents issued and more than 12,000 trademark registrations worldwide. Phelps joined Microsoft in June 2003 after a 28-year career at IBM Corp., where he served as vice president for intellectual property and licensing. Phelps was instrumental in IBM's standards, telecommunications policy, industry relations, patent licensing program and intellectual property portfolio development. Also, Phelps helped
OCR for page 100
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest establish IBM's Asia Pacific headquarters in Tokyo and served as the company's director of government relations in Washington, D.C. Upon retiring from IBM in 2000, he spent two years as chairman and chief executive officer of Spencer Trask Intellectual Capital Company LLC, which specialized in spinoffs from major corporations such as Motorola Inc., Lockheed Martin Corp. and IBM. Phelps holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Muskingum College, a Master of Science degree from Stanford Graduate School of Business and a doctorate from Cornell Law School. He is an Executive-in-Residence at the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University, and also serves on the Board of Visitors. He has also recently been asked to advise Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry on IP matters. And he was elected to the initial class of the Intellectual Property Hall of Fame, in 2006. Dorothy K. Robinson is vice president and general counsel at Yale University where she has served as Yale's general counsel since 1986 and as an officer of the University for almost as long. In addition to serving as Yale’s chief legal counsel, she also has general oversight of university federal relations. Ms. Robinson is a graduate of Swarthmore College and earned her law degree at the University of California’s School of Law (Boalt Hall). She is a member of the bar of Connecticut, New York, and California, as well as various federal courts. Before coming to Yale in 1978, Ms. Robinson practiced law with the firm of Hughes Hubbard and Reed in New York City. She served as Associate General Counsel at Yale until being named Deputy General Counsel in 1984 and Director of Federal Relations the following year. Ms. Robinson has served on the boards of various national higher-education-related organizations and on committees and task forces of those organizations. N. Darius Sankey is a currently a Portfolio Director for Central Portfolio Management at Intellectual Ventures. During the course of writing this report, Dr. Sankey served as Managing Director at Zone Ventures, an affiliate venture capital fund of Draper Fisher Jurvetson based in Los Angeles. Dr. Sankey led the Zone Ventures technology assessment efforts and overseen its portfolio investments for over eight years, serving as a board member for several companies including Siimpel Corporation, Lumexis, Inc. and Microfabrica and Neven Vision (acquired by Google). He has led several transactions in the micro electronics, wireless telecommunications, media & entertainment, and business & consumer software sectors. Dr. Sankey has a strong interest in strategizing market applications for basic science research on the university level. This interest has also led him to a position as a visiting professor at the Rady School of Business at the University of California, at San Diego (UCSD). Before his tenure at Zone Ventures, Dr. Sankey worked as a management consultant at McKinsey & Company, Inc. and held strategic planning, consulting, and R&D positions at RAND and AT&T Bell Laboratories. Dr. Sankey holds a B.S. in Physics and Electrical Engineering from MIT and a Ph.D. in Optical Engineering from the Institute of Optics, University of Rochester.
OCR for page 101
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest Jerry G. Thursby (Ph.D., Economics, University of North Carolina, 1975) is a member of the strategic management faculty of Georgia Institute of Technology and holds the Ernest Scheller, Jr. Chair in Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Commercialization. Prior to joining Georgia Tech in 2007, Professor Thursby was the Goodrich C. White Professor of Economics and Chair, Department of Economics, at Emory University. He has also held faculty appointments with Syracuse University, Ohio State University, and Purdue University. Dr. Thursby has published extensively in the areas of econometrics, international trade, and the commercialization of early stage technologies with a particular interest in the role of university science in national innovation systems. His work has appeared in such outlets as American Economic Review, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Review of Economics and Statistics, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Research Policy, Management Science and Science. Dr. Thursby currently serves on the editorial board of The Journal of Technology Transfer and is an associate editor of The Journal of Productivity Analysis. Jennifer L. West is the Chair and Isabel C. Cameron Professor of Bioengineering at Rice University. Professor West’s research focuses on the development of novel biofunctional materials. Part of her program has developed nanoparticle-based approaches to biophotonics therapeutics and diagnostics. An example of this work is the application of near-infrared absorbing nanoparticles for photothermal tumor ablation. In animal studies, this therapeutic strategy has demonstrated very high efficacy with minimal side effects or damage to surrounding normal tissues. Professor West founded Nanospectra Biosciences, Inc. to commercialize the nanoparticle-assisted photothermal ablation technology, now called AuroLase and in Phase I clinical trials. Professor West has received numerous accolades for her work. In 2008, The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas honored her with the O’Donnell Prize in Engineering as the top engineer in the state. In 2006, she was named one of 20 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professors, recognizing integration of world class research and teaching. She has been listed by MIT Technology Review as one of the 100 most innovative young scientists and engineers world wide. Other recognitions include the Christopher Columbus Foundation Frank Annunzio Award for scientific innovation, Nanotechnology Now’s Best Discovery of 2003, Small Times Magazine’s Researchers of the Year in 2004, and the Society for Biomaterials Outstanding Young Investigator Award. Professor West has authored more than 95 research articles. She also holds 14 patents that have been licensed to seven different companies. West received a B.S. in chemical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in biomedical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.
OCR for page 102
Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest Anne-Marie Mazza is the Director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Mazza joined the National Academies in 1995. She has served as Senior Program Officer with both the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy and the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. In 1999 she was named the first director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, a newly created activity designed to foster communication and analysis among scientists, engineers, and members of the legal community. Dr. Mazza has been the study director on numerous Academy reports including, Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest, 2010; Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, 2009; Science and Security in A Post 9/11 World: A Report Based on Regional Discussions Between the Science and Security Communities, 2007; Daubert Standards: Summary of Meetings, 2006; Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health, 2005; Intentional Human Dosing Studies for EPA Regulatory Purposes: Scientific and Ethical Issues, 2004; Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government, 2003; The Age of Expert Testimony: Science in the Courtroom, 2002; Issues for Science and Engineering Researchers in the Digital Age, 2001; and Observations on the President’s Fiscal Year 2000 Federal Science and Technology Budget, 1999. Between October 1999 and October 2000, Dr. Mazza divided her time between The National Academies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), where she served as a Senior Policy Analyst responsible for issues associated with a Presidential Review Directive on the government-university research partnership. Before joining the Academy, Dr. Mazza was a Senior Consultant with Resource Planning Corporation. Dr. Mazza was awarded a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D., from The George Washington University. Stephen Merrill has been Executive Director of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) since its formation in 1991. With the sponsorship of numerous federal government agencies, foundations, multinational corporations, and international institutions, the STEP program has become an important discussion forum and authoritative voice on innovation, competitiveness, intellectual property, human resources, statistical, and research and development policies. At the same time Dr. Merrill has directed many STEP projects and publications, including A Patent System for the 21st Century (2004), Innovation Inducement Prizes (2007), and Innovation in Global Industries (2008). For his work on patent reform he was named one of the 50 most influential people worldwide in the intellectual property field by Managing Intellectual Property magazine and earned the Academies’ 2005 Distinguished Service Award. He is a member of the World Economic Forum Global Council on the Intellectual Property System. Dr. Merrill holds degrees in political science from Columbia (B.A.), Oxford (M. Phil.), and Yale (M.A. and Ph.D.) Universities. He attended the Kennedy School of Government’s Senior Executives Program and was an adjunct professor of international affairs at Georgetown University from 1989 to 1996.