can provide an effective means of integrating classroom-based and large-scale assessment.

A few issues are relevant across these technologies, Hamilton noted. If students bring different levels of skill with computers to a testing situation, as is likely, the differences may affect their results: this outcome is supported by some research. Schools are increasingly likely to have the necessary infrastructure to administer such tests, but this capacity is still unequally distributed. Teachers trained to prepare students for these sorts of assessments and accurately interpret the results are also not equally distributed among schools. Another issue is that the implications of computer-based approaches for validity and reliability have not been thoroughly evaluated.



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