IMPLEMENTING THE NEW BIOLOGY

Decadal Challenges Linking Food, Energy, and the Environment

SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP JUNE 3-4, 2010

Paula Tarnapol Whitacre, Adam P. Fagen, Jo L. Husbands, and Frances E. Sharples

Planning Committee on Achieving Research Synergies for Food/Energy/Environment Challenges: A Workshop to Explore the Potential of the “New Biology”

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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IMPLEMENTING T HE NEW BIOLOGY Decadal Challenges Linking F ood, Energ y, a nd the Environment S U M M A R Y OF A W ORKSHOP JUNE 3-4, 2 010 Paula Tarnapol Whitacre, Adam P. Fagen, Jo L. Husbands, and Frances E. Sharples Planning Committee on Achieving Research Synergies for Food/Energy/ Environment Challenges: A Workshop to Explore the Potential of the “New Biology” Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the United States Department of Energy, the United States Department of Agriculture, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommenda - tions expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-16194-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-16194-0 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern - ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem - bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis - ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro - viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON ACHIEVING RESEARCH SYNERGIES FOR FOOD/ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGES: A WORKSHOP TO EXPLORE THE POTENTIAL OF THE “NEW BIOLOGY” KEITH YAMAMOTO (Chair), University of California, San Francisco VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, CA CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, D.C. JEFFREY I. GORDON, Washington University, St. Louis, MO PEDRO A. SANCHEZ, The Earth Institute of Columbia University, New York, NY CHRISTOPHER R. SOMERVILLE, University of California, Berkeley; and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Staff ADAM P. FAGEN, Senior Program Officer JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar, Senior Project Director FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Senior Director, Board on Life Sciences PAULA TARNAPOL WHITACRE, Consultant Science Writer and Principal, Full Circle Communications, LLC 

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BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES KEITH R. YAMAMOTO (Chair), University of California, San Francisco, California BONNIE L. BASSLER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia MARK D. FITZSIMMONS, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, Illinois DAVID R. FRANZ, Midwest Research Institute, Frederick, Maryland DONALD E. GANEM, University of California, San Francisco, California LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee JO HANDELSMAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut BERNARD LO, University of California, San Francisco, California ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin, Texas MURIEL E. POSTON, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, Virginia Staff FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Program Officer ANNA FARRAR, Financial Associate CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Senior Program Assistant AMANDA MAZZAWI, Senior Program Assistant SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Program Assistant i

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Acknowledgments This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the pub- lished summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsive- ness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this summary: Jeffery L. Dangl, Uniersity of North Carolina Jeffrey I. Gordon, Washington Uniersity School of Medicine Ann Reid, American Academy of Microbiology Pedro Sanchez, Columbia Uniersity Richard Sayre, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Christopher R. Somerville, Uniersity of California, Berkeley Keith R. Yamamoto, Uniersity of California, San Francisco Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see the final draft of, the workshop summary before its release. Responsi - bility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the authors and the National Research Council. ii

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Direct and in-kind support for the workshop was provided by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Institute of Food and Agriculture of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute. A New Biology for the 21st Century was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Depart - ment of Energy.

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Contents 1 A Vision for the Twenty-First Century: 1 Carbon-Neutral Food and Fuel Imagine a World . . . , 2 A Goal and a Path to Get There, 3 2 Developing the Vision: Highlights of the Workshop 9 Initial Ideas to Spark Discussion, 10 Identifying a High-Level Goal, 12 Transformative Implications, 13 Drilling Down, 14 Engaging Scientists: Five Broad Deliverables, 15 Engaging the Next Generation: Education for the New Biologist, 21 Engaging the Public and Policy Makers: Diagnoses and Cures, 22 3 Wrap-up and Next Steps 25 References 27 Appendixes A Workshop Steering Group 29 B Workshop Background 35 Workshop Statement of Task, 35 Meeting Agenda, 36 List of Participants, 39 ix

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