She has been assisting the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) Evaluation and Analysis Division by assessing the airport capacity benefits of the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Prior to joining the Boeing Company in 1997, she spent five years in airport consulting at KPMG Peat Marwick and TRA/Black & Veatch, four years at The MITRE Corporation supporting the FAA Office of System Capacity and Requirements, and five years at NASA Ames Research Center doing research in air traffic control. She is currently working on developing avionics and ground infrastructure requirements for conducting independent parallel approaches to closely spaced parallel runways. She earned a BS in aeronautical engineering from MIT and an MS in engineering–economic systems from Stanford University.


Michael O. Ball is Orkand Corporation Professor of Management Science in the Robert H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland. He also holds a joint appointment within the Institute for Systems Research in the Clark School of Engineering. He is currently Director of Research for the Smith School and is former chair of the Department of Decision, Operations, and Information Technologies. His research interests are in network optimization and integer programming, particularly as applied to problems in transportation systems and supply chain management. He is Co-Director of the National Center of Excellence for Aviation Operations Research (NEXTOR), and he leads the NEXTOR Collaborative Decision Making Project. He is, or has been, associate editor for Operations Research, Transportation Science, IIE Transactions, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, and Operations Research Letters and Networks. He is currently area editor for transportation for Operations Research. He received a doctorate in operations research from Cornell University.


Mary L. Cummings is the Boeing Associate Professor and Director of the Humans and Automation Laboratory in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics of MIT. She performs research in collaborative human-computer decision making for command and control domains and is a recognized expert in the area of human supervisory control. She served as a naval officer from 1988 to 1999 and was among the first female fighter pilots in the U.S. Navy. She is a member of the NRC Committee on



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