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for both monitoring the global carbon cycle and enforcing possible policy mechanisms (for example, if forestry offsets are included GHG management). Managing forests to store carbon, given the opportunity cost of forested land including agricultural production and timber supply, could lead to changes in land use elsewhere and in turn complicate modeling and design of effective climate policy. The effort to decrease deforestation or increase afforestation in one geographic area and the shifting of deforestation to another area is a concern that has come to be called leakage. Murray et al. (2004) estimate leakage at 10 to 90 percent for various activities within the U.S. and Sohngen and Brown (2004) examine leakage in an international context (see also discussion in Sohngen 2010). Some forest carbon management proposals allow discounting or rental of forest assets and transferability of the assets to account for the possibility of their impermanence (Pfaff et al. 2000, Kim et al 2008). For these reasons, there would also be the need to update periodically the observations of global changes in forests.

One of the largest challenges to deployment of technology to serve these measurement and observational purposes is the financing of investments in instruments, spacecraft, and aircraft. Discussion of climate policy design has tended to overlook investment requirements. The existing fleet of instruments and craft has largely been underwritten by the space programs of national governments, and national space programs serve a wide range of objectives (Macauley et al. 2009). Moving forward, the financing of measurement and monitoring optimized for forest carbon remains a question.

References

Asner, Gregory P. 2009. “Tropical Forest Carbon Assessment: Integrating Satellite and Airborne Mapping Approaches,” Environmental Research Letters 4.

Denman, K.L. et al. 2007. “Couplings between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry,” in S.D. Solomon et al. (eds), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge and NY: Cambridge University Press).

Fagan, M. and R. DeFries. 2009. “Measurement and Monitoring of the World’s Forests: A Review and Summary of Remote Sensing Technical Capability, 2009-2015,” RFF Report, December. (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future).

Grainger, Alan. 2008. “Difficulties in Tracking the Long-term Global Trend in Tropical Forest Area,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:818-23.

Houghton, R.A. and S.J. Goetz. 2008. “New Satellites Help Quantify Carbon Sources and Sinks,” Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89(43): 417-418.

Irland, Lloyd Corell. 2009. “Assessing Sustainability for Global Forests: A Proposed Pathway to Fill Critical Data Gaps,” European Journal of Forest Research.

Kim, Man-Keun, Bruce A. McCarl, and Brian C. Murray. 2008. “Permanence Discounting for Land-Based Carbon Sequestration,” Ecological Economics 64, 763-769.

Kindermann, Georg E., Michael Obersteiner, Ewald Rametsteiner and Ian McCallum. 2006. “Predicting the Deforestation-Trend Under Different Carbon Prices,” Carbon Balance and Management 1:1-15.

Macauley, Molly K., Daniel Morris, Roger Sedjo, Kate Farley, and Brent Sohngen. 2009. “Forest Measurement and Monitoring: Technical Capacity and ‘How Good is Good Enough?’” RFF Report, December (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future).

Matthews, Emily and Alan Grainger. 2002. “Evaluation of FAO’s Global Forest Resources Assessment from the User Perspective,” FAO Corporate Document, at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4001e/Y4001E07.htm (accessed March 2010).

Murray, Brian C., Bruce A. McCarl, and Heng-Chi Lee. 2004. “Estimating Leakage from Forest Carbon Sequestration Programs,” UWO Department of Economics Working Paper 20043 (London, Canada: University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics).

Naidoo, Robin and Takuya Iwamura. 2007. “Global-Scale Mapping of Economic Benefits from Agricultural Lands: Implications for Conservation Priorities,” Biological Conservation140:40-49.

Pfaff, Alexander S.P., Suzi Kerr, R.Flint Hughes, Shuguang Liu, G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, David Schimel, Joseph Tosi, and Vicente Watson. 2000. “The Kyoto Protocol and Payments for Tropical Forest: An Interdisciplinary Method for Estimating Carbon-Offset Supply and Increasing the Feasibility of a Carbon Market Under the CDM,” Ecological Economics 35203-221.

Sohngen, B., and S. Brown. 2004. “Measuring Leakage from Carbon Projects in Open Economies,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34,: 8929-839.

Waggoner, Paul. 2009. “Forest Inventories: Discrepancies and Uncertainties,” RFF Discussion Paper 09-29, August (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future).



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