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been a full professor of economics since 1973. Nordhaus lives in downtown New Haven with his wife Barbara, who works at the Yale Child Study Center. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is on the research staff of the Cowles Foundation and of the National Bureau of Economic Research and has been a member and senior advisor of the Brookings Panel on Economic Activity, Washington, D.C., since 1972. Nordhaus is a current or past editor of several scientific journals and has served on the executive committees of the American Economic Association and the Eastern Economic Association. He serves on the Congressional Budget Office Panel of Economic Experts and was the first chairman of the Advisory Committee for the Bureau of Economic Analysis. He was the first chairman of the newly formed American Economic Association Committee on Federal Statistics. In 2004, he was awarded the prize of Distinguished Fellow by the American Economic Association. From 1977 to 1979, he was a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. From 1986 to 1988, he served as the provost of Yale University. He has served on several committees of the National Academy of Sciences, including the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, the Panel on Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, the Committee on National Statistics, the Committee on Data and Research on Illegal Drugs, and the Committee on the Implications for Science and Society of Abrupt Climate Change. He recently chaired a panel of the National Academy of Sciences; this committee produced a report, Nature’s Numbers, which recommended approaches to integrate environmental and other non-market activity into the national economic accounts. More recently, he has directed the Yale Project on Non-Market Accounting, supported by the Glaser Foundation. He is the author of many books, among them Invention, Growth and Welfare, Is Growth Obsolete?, The Efficient Use of Energy Resources, Reforming Federal Regulation, Managing the Global Commons, Warming the World, and (joint with Paul Samuelson) the classic textbook Economics, whose eighteenth edition was published in the fall of 2005. His research has focused on economic growth and natural resources, as well as the question of the extent to which resources constrain economic growth. Since the 1970s, he has developed economic approaches to global warming, including the construction of integrated economic and scientific models (the DICE and RICE models) to determine an efficient path for coping with climate change, with DICE-2007 completed in the spring of 2007. Nordhaus has also studied wage and price behavior, augmented national accounting, the political business cycle, productivity, and the “new economy.” His 1996 study of the economic history of lighting back to Babylonian times found that the measurement of long-term economic growth has been significantly underestimated. He returned to Mesopotamian economics with a study in 2002 of the costs of a war in Iraq. Recently, he has undertaken the “G-Econ project,” which provides the first comprehensive measures of economic activity at a geophysical scale.


Karen L. Palmer is a senior fellow and associate director for electricity in the Center for Climate and Electricity Policy at Resources for the Future (RFF) in Washington, D.C., and the director of RFF’s Electricity and Environment Program. Palmer specializes in the economics of environmental regulation of the electricity sector and the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency programs. Her most recent work has focused on renewable energy and controls of multi-pollutants and carbon emissions from electrical generating plants. She has done extensive work analyzing different aspects of policy design for the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. She is co-author of the book Alternating Currents: Electricity Markets and Public Policy, published by RFF Press in 2002. Palmer previously served as an economist in the Office of Economic Policy at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. She received a Ph.D. degree in economics from Boston College.


Richard Richels is senior technical executive for global climate change research at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Palo Alto, California. He has served on a number of national and international advisory panels, including committees of the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Research Council. Richels has served as a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). He also served on the Scientific Steering Committee for the U.S. Carbon Cycle Program. He currently serves on the Advisory Committee for Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change, the U.S. government’s Climate Change Science Program Product Development Advisory Committee, and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Climate Research Committee, as well as on the Panel on Informing Effective Decisions and Actions Related to Climate Change for the NAS study on America’s Climate



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