Research on such issues can help in designing viable partnership models and guidelines appropriate for a variety of business types and sizes.


Focus research on how to motivate and integrate community-based, faith-based, and other nongovernment organizations—including those not crisis oriented—into resilience-focused collaboration.

Community-based organizations, faith-based organizations (FBOs), and other nongovernment organizations (NGOs) play critical roles in all phases of the disaster cycle. They help develop social capital, serve and represent disenfranchised community members, and in general provide a social safety net for diverse at-risk populations. It is to such organizations that vulnerable community residents will turn when disaster strikes. For that reason alone, communities have a vested interest in the involvement of the nonprofit sector in resilience-enhancing activities. However, the small amount of existing research on how resilient this sector is indicates that NGOs are not well prepared for disasters and that representatives of community-based organizations are rarely involved in community disaster-resilience efforts (Drabek, 2003). One of the biggest gaps in our knowledge is the role played by what is referred to as understudied “noncrisis-relevant nonprofits” and community-based organizations (for example, homeless shelters, agencies serving immigrants, and community clinics). Such targeted research can help communities identify their unknown or neglected facilitators during times of disaster. Understanding how to act on that knowledge could provide a means of empowering those groups to operate most efficiently for their own benefit and for the benefit of the community as a whole. More cost-effective and viable mobilization strategies, particularly for communities in perpetual states similar to disaster because of such conditions as extreme poverty, could be identified. Furthermore, research on how partnership agendas can be reframed to be more inclusive may help bring in important but overlooked community stakeholders.


Focus research on how the emergency-management and homeland security sectors can be moved toward a “culture of collaboration” that engages the full fabric of the community in enhancing resilience.

Findings discussed in this report indicate that private-sector organizations including NGOs have difficulty forming private–public partnerships, and government agencies charged with emergency-management responsibilities face similar barriers. The question

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