of how best to move government emergency-management and homeland security agencies toward a culture of collaboration has received little research attention (for more discussion, see Stanley and Waugh, 2001; Drabek, 2003; McEntire, 2007). Research is therefore needed to explore ways to overcome structural, cultural, educational, training, and other barriers that may prevent those in the public emergency-management sector from adopting more collaborative models for resilience enhancement.

As discussed in Chapter 4, those in the government emergency-management and homeland security agencies tend to be unfamiliar with the concerns and perspectives that typify the private, including the nonprofit, sector. They may be unfamiliar with the kinds of activities and processes needed to initiate and nurture cross-sector collaboration. Many entities and personnel in emergency management have yet to embrace the concept of collaborative emergency management even though the concept is nearly two decades old. Some government agencies and personnel remain more comfortable with top-down “command and control” frameworks than with approaches that emphasize collaboration and network management. Such perspectives are probably rooted in earlier training and professional experiences—for example, in the military or law enforcement—or in concerns about homeland security. They may also be rooted in lack of knowledge about the role of civil society in disaster management, in concerns about “turf” and organizational prerogatives, and possibly even in generational differences. Researchers find the National Response Framework (FEMA, 2008) more “collaboration-friendly” than earlier plans for intergovernment disaster response (see, for example, discussions in Gazley et al., 2009), but the fact remains that a “culture of collaboration” has not yet taken hold in the emergency-management and homeland security communities.

BUILDING SOCIAL CAPITAL

Focus research on ways to build capacity for resilience-focused private–public sector collaboration.


Research on disaster resilience has focused increasingly on the relationship between social capital and resilience with an emphasis on social capital as the foundation for community adaptive capacity (see Norris et al., 2008). The formation of effective and productive social networks constitutes a key element in the development of social capital, and private–public partnerships can provide an infrastructure for such networks. Recognizing the importance of social capital and capacity building raises the need for research on capacity-building strategies, including studies that focus on the kinds of training needed for leaders in the private and public sectors; on how collaboration skill sets are built at the community level; and on how creativity and innovation can be fostered within collaboration, for example, by tapping into the potential that is inherent in new information and commu-



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