foster community-level partnership building more effectively. Although the guidelines presented address resilience-focused private–public collaboration at the community level, they are applicable to collaboration at any level.

The private sector can build capacity, for example, by educating local elected officials about the benefits of participation in and support of community cross-sector partnerships and collaboration that encourage anticipatory risk reduction. It can combine the power of for-profit and nonprofit organizations to influence legislation and policy that support resilience-focused disaster mitigation and business continuity planning at the local, state, and federal levels. At the same time, the private sector, including NGOs and FBOs, can commit to internal organizational resilience through business-continuity measures, and encourage preparedness for employees and their families through education and training, activities, and incentives.

The public sector is typically regarded as a leader in providing disaster response and recovery aid. It is essential, then, that the public sector promote activities that increase knowledge about resilience, resilience building, and the importance of private–public collaboration among community members. Government employees may be trained to promote resilience in their own lives and to understand their roles in the continuity of their organizations during and following a disaster.

Federal partners, like community-level counterparts, could learn from unsuccessful efforts to develop strategies for mainstreaming collaboration in existing programs. Training and learning experiences aimed at developing the skill necessary for forming, sustaining, and institutionalizing private–public collaboration could be built on such lessons learned. Federal activities could include producing training materials for disaster personnel, placing a greater emphasis on partnership-building skills in programs offered by the Emergency Management Institute, funding workshops and train-the-trainer experiences, sponsoring the development of higher-education courses and textbooks on the topic, and providing learning experiences for members of the federal workforce.

REFERENCES

AACC (American Association of Community Colleges). 2006. First Responders: Community Colleges on the Front Line of Security. Washington, DC. Available at www.aacc.nche.edu/Publications/Reports/Documents/firstresponders.pdf (accessed September 16, 2010).

Alesch, D., P. May, R. Olshansky, W. Petak, and K. Tierney. 2004. Promoting Seismic Safety: Guidance for Advocates. MCEER-04-SP02. Prepared for Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC. Buffalo, NY: The State University of New York at Buffalo.

Banerjee, A. V. and E. Duflo. 2010. Giving Credit Where it is Due. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Paper available at econ-www.mit.edu/files/5416 (accessed August 4, 2010).

Banerjee, A. V., E. Duflo, R. Glennerster, D. Kothari. 2010. Improving Immunization Coverage in Rural India: A Clustered Randomized Controlled Evaluation of Immunization Campaigns with and without Incentives. British Medical Journal 340: c2220.



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