and strategic studies from the Naval War College. He is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.

Donald C. Fraser, Vice Chair, NAE, has broad research management experience and is the founder and retired director of the Boston University Photonics Center. Dr. Fraser has had a distinguished career managing the development of high-technology enterprises in both the private and public sectors. He received his B.S. and M.S. in aeronautics and astronautics and his Sc.D. in instrumentation from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Fraser joined MIT’s Instrumentation Laboratory (which became the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in 1973) as a member of the technical staff working on Apollo flight controls; later he served as the director of the Control and Flight Dynamics Division, vice president of technical operations, and executive vice president. From 1990 to 1991, Dr. Fraser was the deputy director of operational testing and evaluation for command, control, communications, and intelligence at the U.S. Department of Defense. After Senate confirmation he was appointed Principal Deputy Undersecretary of Defense (Acquisition) from 1991 to 1993. From 1993 until he retired in 2006, Dr. Fraser was the director of the Boston University Photonics Center and a professor of engineering and physics. His honors include membership in the National Academy of Engineering and receipt of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal; he is also an Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Fraser has served on the NASA Advisory Council, was a former member of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, and has served as chair of several National Research Council (NRC) study groups, as well as being a member of many other NRC study groups.

Charles E. Adolph is currently an independent consultant and has approximately 50 years’ experience in testing and evaluation and acquisition management. He started his career with General Dynamics Convair as a flight test engineer at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1956. Following 3 years in the U.S. Air Force, he held a variety of engineering and systems acquisition, technical, and management positions with the Air Force, advancing to technical director, the senior civilian position at the Air Force Flight Test Center. From 1987 to 1994, he held several positions in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. For most of that period he was the director of Test and Evaluation, Acquisition, and Technology. He also served as the acting director of Operational Test and Evaluation and acting director of Defense Research and Engineering. He was a senior vice president for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) from 1994 to 2000 and served as the manager of the SAIC Testing and Evaluation group. Mr. Adolph received a B.S. degree in aeronautical engineering from St. Louis University, an M.S. in aeronautical and

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