RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN CORROSION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

Committee on Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN CORROSION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Committee on Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. FA8501-06-D-0001 between the National Academy of Sci- ences and the Department of Defense and by awards 0840104 from the National Science Foundation and DE-FG02-08ER46534 from the Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-16286-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-16286-6 This report is available in limited quantities from National Materials Advisory Board 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 nmab@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmab Additional copies of the report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet: http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern - ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to asso- ciate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.or g

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COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH OPPORTuNITIES IN CORROSION SCIENCE AND ENgINEERINg DAVID J. DUQUETTE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Co-Chair ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation, Co-Chair AZIZ I. ASPHAHANI, Carus Corporation (retired) GORDON P. BIERWAGEN, North Dakota State University DARRYL P. BUTT, Boise State University GERALD S. FRANKEL, Ohio State University ROGER C. NEWMAN, University of Toronto SHARI N. ROSENBLOOM, Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Inc. LYLE H. SCHWARTZ (NAE), University of Maryland JOHN R. SCULLY, University of Virginia PETER F. TORTORELLI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory DAVID TREJO, Oregon State University DARREL F. UNTEREKER, Medtronic, Inc. MIRNA URQUIDI-MACDONALD, Pennsylvania State University Staff ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Study Director EMILY ANN MEYER, Study Co-director (January 2009 to January 2010) TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator (until December 2009) LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant 

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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates, Chair LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, University of Maryland, Vice Chair PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, Alcoa, Inc. (retired) L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC JOHN W. CAHN, University of Washington YET MING CHIANG, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory SOSSINA M. HAILE, California Institute of Technology CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University ELIZABETH HOLM, Sandia National Laboratories DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., Stevens Institute of Technology TOM KING, Oak Ridge National Laboratory KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation STEVEN WAX, Strategic Analysis, Inc. Staff DENNIS I. CHAMOT, Acting Director ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant i

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Preface Corrosion science and engineering is a complex and broad subject that is not well defined and is still evolving as the subject itself expands beyond the traditional one, “the destructive oxidation of metals,” to the subject of this report, “environ- mentally induced degradation of a material that involves a chemical reaction.” The newer subject matter encompasses a wide spectrum of environments and all classes of materials, not just metals, and it intentionally excludes degradation due to nonchemical processes such as creep, fatigue, and tribology. Some technologists perceive the corrosion research field as moribund, but others, including the members of the National Research Council’s Committee on Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering, see the field quite differently—as exciting, poised to make huge leaps. This optimism is based on many converging forces, including the better understanding of nanometer-level chemical processes, instrumentation not previously available that enables the inves- tigation of various phenomena, advances in heuristic- and physics-based materials modeling and simulation, and—especially important—societal expectations that the quality of life will continue to improve in all dimensions. The degree to which the committee successfully addressed its ambitious charge—to posit grand challenges for corrosion science and engineering and to suggest a national strategy to meet them—will be judged by the readers of this report. The committee hopes that this report will catalyze action to revitalize the corrosion science and engineering field. Developing a national strategy for any technical field is a highly ambitious goal, as is prioritizing the work that must be done to realize that strategy across all the ii

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Preface iii federal agencies. During its deliberations, the committee realized that thrusts in corrosion science and engineering research must be linked to engineering applica- tions in order to focus research and development efforts. What the committee was able to do was to develop a framework for a national strategy by identifying four corrosion grand challenges that serve as an approach to organizing new basic and applied corrosion research. Because most of the engineering applications in aggres- sive environments historically used metals, the committee was able to identify more corrosion research opportunities related to metals than to nonmetals. To the extent that it could do so, and based on the experience of its members and the information provided to it, the committee also identified corrosion research opportunities for other materials systems. It expects that an appropriate mechanistic understanding of environmental degradation of nonmetals will lead to proactive approaches to avoiding corrosion or mitigating its effects, basing its ideas on the long experience with corrosion in metallic systems. However, although a few specific such activi- ties are cited in this report, it will be the work of another body to identify research needs and opportunities related to corrosion in nonmetallic systems. Constituted in the fall of 2008, the committee was given the following the tasks: • Identify opportunities and advance scientific and engineering understand- ing of the mechanisms involved in corrosion processes, environmental materials degradation, and their mitigation. • Identify and prioritize a set of research grand challenges that would fill the gaps in emerging scientific and engineering issues. • Recommend a national strategy for fundamental corrosion research to gain a critical understanding of (1) degradation of materials by the environment and (2) technologies for mitigating this degradation. The strategy should recommend how best to disseminate the outcomes of corrosion research and incorporate them into corrosion mitigation. The committee, which was composed of experts in the field as well as generalists and experts in complementary disciplines, explored accomplishments in corrosion research and its effects and assessed needs and opportunities that could be addressed by future research. The full committee met four times between December 2008 and September 2009: on December 18-19, 2008, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C.; April 1-2, 2009, at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California; June 15-17, 2009, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Wash- ington, D.C.; and September 1-2, 2009, at the J. Erik Jonsson Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The committee also held town hall sessions at the annual meetings of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers and the Minerals, Metals, and

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Preface ix Materials Society to raise the technical community’s awareness of this study, and it prepared a questionnaire to solicit input from the corrosion community. This report complements the recent National Research Council report Assess- ment of Corrosion Education (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2009). Five of the present committee’s 14 members either served on the committee that wrote the 2009 report or participated as peer reviewers of that report. The main body of the present report comprises five chapters. Chapter 1, “Corrosion—Its Influence and Control,” sets the stage for the remaining four chap- ters of the report. It defines “corrosion,” describes its societal impact, and discusses some of the successes of corrosion R&D. Chapter 2, “Grand Challenges for Corro- sion Research,” describes the process the committee used to develop the framework of grand challenges, lists the challenges, and then prioritizes them. Chapter 3, “Research Opportunities,” presents examples of basic research (the foundation of addressing all the grand challenges) and applied research that can significantly advance understanding of corrosion and mitigation of its effects, and also describes examples of instrumentation and techniques pertinent to progress in characteriz- ing corrosion processes. Chapter 4, “Dissemination of the Outcomes of Corrosion Research,” addresses technology transfer. The last chapter, “A National Strategy for Corrosion Research,” summarizes the key findings and recommendations of the report. The six appendixes contain the statement of task (A); results of the com- mittee’s questionnaire on corrosion mitigation (B); a discussion on the modeling of corrosion (C); definitions of the acronyms used in the report (D); a summary of current government programs relating to corrosion (E); and biographies of the committee members (F). David J. Duquette and Robert E. Schafrik, Co-Chairs Committee on Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering

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Acknowledgments The Department of Defense Corrosion Policy and Oversight Office initially requested this study. It was ultimately sponsored by that office and by the National Science Foundation, Division of Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation within the Engineering Directorate and the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Fiona M. Doyle, University of California, Jeremy L. Gilbert, Syracuse University, Thomas P. Moffat, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Joe H. Payer, University of Akron, Kathleen Taylor, General Motors Corporation (retired), Shelby F. Thames, University of Southern Mississippi, and Gary Was, University of Michigan. xi

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acknowledgments xii Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or rec- ommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George Dieter, emeritus professor of mechanical engineering, the Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering at the University of Maryland. Appointed by the National Research Council (NRC), he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee also thanks the guest speakers at its meetings, who added to the members’ understanding of corrosion and the issues surrounding it: Graham E.C. Bell, Schiff Associates, Stanley A. Brown, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Luz Marina Calle, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ram Darolia, Consultant, Daniel Dunmire, Department of Defense, Brian Gleeson, University of Pittsburgh, Jonathan Martin, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Joe H. Payer, University of Akron, Lewis Sloter, Department of Defense, John Vetrano, Department of Energy, and Paul Virmani, Department of Transportation. In addition, the committee thanks the corrosion experts who attended its town meetings and those who responded to its online questionnaire. Their candid comments were instrumental in allowing the committee to achieve a balanced understanding of the research and development needed to advance the field. The excellent support of the NRC staff is especially appreciated. Special thanks go to Erik Svedberg, who was indispensable to our accomplishing this study.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 CORROSION—ITS INFLUENCE AND CONTROL 11 Introduction, 11 Types of Corrosion, 13 Examples of Corrosion Mitigation Challenges, 16 Success Stories from Corrosion Research, 19 Corrosion- and Heat-Resistant Alloys, 19 Motor Vehicles, 22 Aging Aircraft Airframes, 23 Pipelines, 24 Medical Devices, 26 Nuclear Reactor Systems, 29 Radioactive Waste, 31 Protective Coatings for High-Temperature Combustion Turbines, 32 Summary Observations, 34 2 CORROSION RESEARCH GRAND CHALLENGES 39 Discovering the Corrosion Grand Challenges, 39 Linking Technical Grand Challenges to Societal Needs, 43 Corrosion Grand Challenges, 43 Addressing the Grand Challenges: A National Corrosion Strategy, 48 xiii

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contents xi 3 RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES 53 Opportunities for Research, 55 CGC I: Development of Cost-Effective, Environment-Friendly Corrosion-Resistant Materials and Coatings, 55 CGC II: High-Fidelity Modeling for the Prediction of Corrosion Degradation in Actual Service Environments, 68 CGC III: Accelerated Corrosion Testing Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions That Quantitatively Correlates to Observed Long-Term Behavior in Service Environments, 78 CGC IV: Accurate Forecasting of Remaining Service Time Until Major Repair, Replacement, or Overhaul Becomes Necessary— i.e., Corrosion Prognosis, 83 The Base—Corrosion Science, 91 Techniques and Tools for Research, 108 Examples of Relevant Techniques and Tools, 109 Summary Observations on Instrumentation, 120 4 DISSEMINATION OF THE OUTCOMES OF CORROSION RESEARCH 121 Cultural Challenges, 122 Dissemination Strategies for Corrosion Engineering, 124 Education, 124 Continuing Education, 127 Engineering Design Tools and Products, 127 New Products, 129 Corrosion-Related Specifications and Standards, 130 Technology Transfer Organizations, 131 5 A NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR CORROSION RESEARCH 133 Federal Agency Corrosion Road Maps, 135 Application-Focused Corrosion Research, 136 Establishment of Industry, University, and National Laboratory Consortia, 137 Dissemination of the Outcomes of Corrosion Research, 138 National Multiagency Committee on Environmental Degradation, 139 Summary, 139

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contents x APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 143 B Results of the Committee’s Corrosion Mitigation Questionnaire 147 C Corrosion Modeling 153 D Acronyms 157 E Government Programs in Corrosion 161 F Committee Biographies 169

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