Appendix C


Participant Biographies

Gail H. Cassell, Ph.D., most recently held the position of Vice President, Scientific Affairs, and Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. She is former Charles H. McCauley Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during the decade of her leadership. She obtained her BS from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected as one of the top 31 female graduates of the twentieth century. She obtained her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as its 2003 Distinguished Alumnus. She is past President of the American Society for Microbiology (the oldest and single largest life sciences organization, with a membership of more than 42,000). She was a member of the NIH Director’s Advisory Committee and of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She was named to the original Board of Scientific Counselors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and served as chair of the board. She recently served a 3-year term on the advisory board of the Director of CDC and as a member of the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ Advisory Council of Public Health Preparedness. Currently she is a member of the Science Board of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Since 1996 she has been a member of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program, responsible for advising the respective governments (U.S. State Department/Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) on joint research agendas. She has served on several edito-



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Appendix C Participant Biographies Gail H. Cassell, Ph.D., most recently held the position of Vice President, Sci- entific Affairs, and Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Dis- eases, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. She is former Charles H. McCauley Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from the National Insti- tutes of Health (NIH) during the decade of her leadership. She obtained her BS from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected as one of the top 31 female graduates of the twentieth century. She obtained her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as its 2003 Distinguished Alumnus. She is past President of the American Society for Microbiology (the oldest and single largest life sciences organization, with a membership of more than 42,000). She was a member of the NIH Director’s Advisory Committee and of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She was named to the original Board of Scientific Counselors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and served as chair of the board. She recently served a 3-year term on the advisory board of the Director of CDC and as a member of the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ Advisory Council of Public Health Prepared- ness. Currently she is a member of the Science Board of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Since 1996 she has been a member of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program, responsible for advising the respective governments (U.S. State Department/Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) on joint research agendas. She has served on several edito- 123

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124 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA rial boards of scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious diseases. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and is currently serv- ing a 3-year term on the IOM Council, the institution’s governing board. Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in the formulation of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. For 9 years she was chair of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; she has served as an advisor on infectious dis- eases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and has been an invited participant in numerous congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimi- crobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served two terms on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), the accrediting body for U.S. medical schools, as well as other national committees involved in establishing policies on training in the biomedical sciences. She recently completed a term on the Leadership Council of the School of Public Health of Harvard University. Currently she is a member of the Executive Commit- tee of the Board of Visitors of Columbia University School of Medicine, the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research!America, and the Advisory Council of the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing. Peter Cegielski, M.D., M.P.H., received his bachelor’s degree with hon- ors from Harvard University in 1978. He received his medical degree in 1984 from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. He completed a residency in internal medicine in 1987 and a fellowship in infectious diseases/international health in 1990, both at Duke University Medical Center. For two years he was posted to Muhimbili Medical Center, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where he was a lecturer and con- sultant physician. After returning to the United States, Dr. Cegielski joined the faculty of the Division of Infectious Diseases/International Health at Duke, and in 1995 he received a master’s degree in epidemiology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health. From 1994 to 1996, he was at the University of Texas Health Science Cen- ter in Tyler, where he was an assistant professor of medicine and head of the TB service. At the end of 1996 he took a faculty position at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, where he was field director of the HIV/AIDS research program at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. In 1998 he joined the International Activity of the Division of TB Elimination at CDC in Atlanta. In 2001, he was promoted to team leader for drug-resistant TB, his current position. Dr. Cegielski was a founding member of the STOP TB Green Light Committee for increasing access to

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125 APPENDIX C treatment of MDR TB and served as its chairman, 2004–2006. His work focuses on the epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of TB, especially drug-resistant TB. Dr. Mingting Chen specializes in TB control and prevention. He received a master’s degree from Peking Union Medical College and a bachelor’s degree from Shanghai Medical University. Since September 2005, Dr. Chen has served as researcher/vice director with the National Centre of Tuberculosis Control and Prevention of China. Dr. Gerrit Coetzee is a pathologist currently living in Johannesburg, South Africa. He is head of the National Tuberculosis Laboratory at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a division within the National Health Laboratory Service of South Africa. His main interests include anti-TB resistance within national program settings—particularly MDR and XDR TB, the epidemiology of TB in high-burden settings, molecular epidemiol- ogy and outbreak investigations, and surveillance of TB (especially MDR/ XDR TB). He is currently managing a large 2-year line probe assay (LPA) roll-out project in South Africa, aimed at the very early detection of MDR TB and early initiation of optimal treatment. Jeffrey M. Drazen, M.D., was born and raised in St. Louis. Dr. Drazen majored in physics at Tufts University and graduated from Harvard Medi- cal School in 1972. After serving his medical internship at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, he joined the pulmonary divisions of the Har- vard hospitals. He served as chief of pulmonary medicine at the Beth Israel Hospital, chief of the combined pulmonary divisions of the Beth Israel and Brigham and Women’s Hospitals, and then as chief of pulmonary medi- cine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Through his research, Dr. Drazen defined the role of novel endogenous chemical agents in asthma, leading to four new licensed pharmaceuticals for asthma, with millions of people on treatment worldwide. In 2000, he assumed the post of editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine. During his tenure, the Journal has published major papers advancing the science of medicine, including the first descriptions of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and modifi- cations in the treatment of cancer, heart disease, and lung disease, and has been at the forefront of the worldwide effort to register all clinical trials. The Journal, which has more than a million readers every week, has the highest impact factor of any journal publishing original research. Jerrold J. Ellner, M.D., is professor and chief of infectious diseases at Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center. He has studied the immunopathogenesis of TB and TB in HIV through research

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126 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA collaborations in Uganda and Brazil. Dr. Ellner has conducted clinical trials of the prevention and treatment of TB, as well as the first HIV/AIDS vaccine trial in Africa. His research group was the first to show that TB accelerated the course of HIV infection by activating viral replication in latently infected cells. Dr. Ellner was one of the principal architects of the Uganda–Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration; a founding member of the Academic Alliance for AIDS Prevention and Care in Africa, which developed the Infectious Diseases Institute at Makerere University; and founding director of the TB Research Unit at Case Western Reserve University. He currently is principal investigator for an Interna- tional Collaboration for Infectious Diseases Research program in Brazil and the TB Clinical Diagnostics Research Consortium. Dr. Ellner has authored more than 250 publications on TB and has trained a number of current academic leaders in infectious diseases. Paul Farmer, M.D., Ph.D., is a medical anthropologist, physician, and founding director of Partners In Health (PIH), an international nonprofit organization that provides direct health care services and has undertaken research and advocacy activities on behalf of those who are sick and living in poverty. Dr. Farmer is Presley Professor of Social Medicine and chair of the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School; chief of the Division of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Wom- en’s Hospital; and United Nations deputy special envoy for Haiti, under special envoy Bill Clinton. Dr. Farmer and his colleagues in the United States and in Haiti, Peru, Russia, Rwanda, Lesotho, and Malawi have pio- neered novel community-based treatment strategies that demonstrate the delivery of high-quality health care in resource-poor settings. Dr. Farmer has written extensively on health, human rights, and the consequences of social inequality. His most recent book is Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Other titles include Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor, The Uses of Haiti, Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues, and AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Dr. Farmer is the recipient of numerous honors, including the Margaret Mead Award from the American Anthropologi- cal Association; the Outstanding International Physician (Nathan Davis) Award from the American Medical Association; a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship; and, with his PIH colleagues, the Hil- ton Humanitarian Prize. He is a member of the IOM and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Olga P. Frolova, M.D., Ph.D., is head of the TB/HIV Health Care Center, Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation. In 1998 she defended her doctoral dissertation titled “Peculiarities of Tubercu-

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127 APPENDIX C losis in HIV-Infected Patients and Its Prevention.” Dr. Frolova is chairman of the thematic working group of Russia’s Health Ministry and WHO’s Tuberculosis and HIV-Infected Patients. Qian Gao, Ph.D., is a professor at Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Uni- versity. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Southern California and was a postdoctoral fellow in the School of Medicine at Stanford Uni- versity. Dr. Gao’s research focuses on the molecular epidemiology of TB, especially the transmission regularity of this disease in China; the genetic diversity and pathogenesis of Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Nico C. Gey van Pittius, Ph.D., is an associate professor in biomedical sci- ences and a core member of the Department of Science and Technology/ National Research Foundation, Centre of Excellence in Biomedical Tuber- culosis Research, based in the South African Medical Research Council’s (MRC’s) Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology in the Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics of the Department of Biomedical Sciences in the Faculty of Health Sciences of Stellenbosch University. A molecular biologist by training, he holds a B.Sc., Honns. B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. and recently completed his LLB. He also holds a certificate in intel- lectual property law. Dr. Gey van Pittius’s research focuses on TB. Over the last 12 years, he has aimed to decipher the secrets of the genus Myco- bacterium, with specific focus on the evolution of the mycobacteria and of mycobacterial pathogenicity and drug resistance. This work entails discov- ering how the mycobacteria developed to be successful pathogens, focus- ing on the mechanisms of evolution and the development of pathogenicity and resistance. Dr. Gey van Pittius’s broader research interests encompass mycobacterial molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, and strain diver- sification. His work has been at the forefront of TB research and has led to the challenging of dogmas and the opening of new avenues of research toward understanding the evolution of mycobacterial virulence. Dr. Gey van Pittius is rated as a Y1 category researcher by the National Research Foundation, and he has received numerous honors, awards, and grants, including the Stellenbosch University Faculty of Health Sciences Award for Excellence in Research in 2008. He is a member of the Senate, the Health Research Ethics Committee, the Faculty Board, and the Committee for Postgraduate Research of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch. He is also a member of several review committees and forums and belongs to numerous scientific societies, such as the American Society for Microbiology and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. He is an elected member of the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) and the South African Academy of Science and Art. Dr. Gey

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128 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA van Pittius has coauthored 50 papers and book chapters on various aspects of TB and is coinventor of two granted and three provisional patents in the field. His work on TB has been presented in oral and poster form at more than 35 international and more than 50 national conferences and meet- international meet- ings, and he has been invited to present lectures at numerous institutions worldwide. Dr. Gey van Pittius strives to promote the establishment of a vibrant scientific community encompassing both academia and industry, working together to ensure that South Africa becomes a leader in science and technology on the continent and globally. Maria Y. Giovanni, Ph.D., holds a B.A. in biology and a Ph.D. in molecular biology from the University of Pennsylvania. She did her postdoctoral train- ing in the NIH laboratory of Dr. Marshall Nirenberg in molecular neurosci- Marshall neurosci- ence. She continued at NIH in 1988 at the National Eye Institute as director of fundamental retinal processes and then chief, Retinal Diseases Branch, and also led efforts in ocular genomics. In 2000 she moved to NIAID as assistant director for microbial genomics and advanced technologies. She has been involved in leading and coordinating efforts in infectious diseases, biodefense, influenza genomics/proteomics/bioinformatics/systems, biology resources and initiatives, and medical diagnostics for NIAID. Dmitry A. Goliaev has been the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculo- sis, and Malaria project director for the Russian Health Care Foundation (RHCF) since 2003. Prior to joining RHCF, he provided consulting ser- vices in the import/export of raw materials and manufactured goods, as well as expertise in the negotiation of credit agreements with Russia and foreign banks. Goliaev has also worked in a number of positions for the Moscow foreign trade association Technostroyexport, including deputy general director (1997–2002); chairman, board of directors (2000–2002); deputy director (1991–1997); head of the Business and Juridical Group (1987–1991); and senior engineer (1982–1987). His work with Techno- stroyexport involved the operational management of international import/ export plans; currency flows and tax payment planning; and management of agreements between international banks and foreign partners, includ- ing the preparation and implementation of international contracts, the organization of procurement and supply, and the provision of payments for delivered goods and services. Goliaev received a degree in mechanics, with honors, from the Moscow Institute of Rail Road Engineering (1975) and a degree in international economic cooperation, with honors, from the All-Union Academy of Foreign Trade in Moscow (1982). Dr. Piotr Golubchikov has been assistant to the head physician on medical work in Tomsk Regional Tubercular Clinic since 2006. He is responsible

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129 APPENDIX C for the treatment of MDR TB patients at the outpatient stage in the Tomsk region through grants from the Global Fund (2004–2009, 2010–2015). Dr. Golubchikov studied at Siberian State Medical University from 1994 to 2000, passing his clinical internship on TB and illnesses of the lungs in 2002. Before taking his current position at the Tomsk Regional Tubercular Clinic, Dr. Golubchikov worked for the Red Cross managing patients sick with TB. Alexander Golubkov, M.D., M.P.H., currently serves as medical director for Russia and Kazakhstan for PIH. He supervises all medical and program activities for PIH projects in Russia and Kazakhstan, including medical care for multidrug-resistant TB, training programs, research activities, and grant implementation. Dr. Golubkov coordinates physicians, researchers, and project staff from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Boston based in PIH offices and at the Division of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, where he holds a clinical appointment as an associate physician. As medical director, Dr. Golubkov integrates Russian clinical activities with other PIH projects and collaborates with partner organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, the Global Fund, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other agencies working on TB and HIV in the former Soviet Union. Dr. Golubkov holds a medical degree from the Novosibirsk Medical School and a master of public health degree from the Boston University School of Public Health. Before his appointment as medical director, he served as a Russian project manager at PIH/Boston. Before joining the Boston team, he worked for a PIH Russian project in Tomsk, where his primary responsibilities were managing the implementa- tion of a $10.8 million Global Fund grant for Tomsk territory (a Russian territory with a population of 1 million), serving as a liaison with interna- tional partners and donors, supervising clinical work, and coordinating and managing the monitoring and evaluation component of the Global Fund grant. Before joining PIH, Dr. Golubkov served as a medical doctor at the Novosibirsk Institute for Cardiac Surgery. Margaret Hamburg, M.D., was confirmed on May 18, 2009, by a unani- mous Senate voice vote to become the 21st commissioner of food and drugs, a position for which she is exceptionally qualified by her training and experience as a medical doctor, scientist, and public health executive. Dr. Hamburg graduated from Harvard Medical School, and completed her residency in internal medicine at what is now New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center. She conducted research on neuro- science at Rockefeller University in New York; studied neuropharmacology at the National Institute of Mental Health, NIH; and later focused on AIDS research as assistant director of NIAID. In 1990, Dr. Hamburg joined the

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130 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene as deputy health commissioner and within a year was promoted to commissioner, a position she held until 1997. During her tenure, she carried out significant public health measures despite severe budget constraints while holding academic positions at Columbia University School of Public Health and Cornell Uni- versity Medical College. Dr. Hamburg’s accomplishments as New York’s top public health official included improved services for women and chil- dren, needle-exchange programs to reduce the spread of HIV, and initia- tion of the first public health bioterrorism defense program in the nation. Her most celebrated achievement, however, was curbing the spread of TB. Dr. Hamburg confronted the problem by sending health care workers to patients’ homes and taking other steps to ensure that they completed the drug regimen. Thanks to this program, the TB rate in New York City fell by 46 percent overall and 86 percent for the most drug-resistant strains within 5 years. Dr. Hamburg’s innovative approach has become a model for health departments worldwide. In 1994, Dr. Hamburg was elected to membership in the IOM, one of the youngest persons to be so honored. Three years later, at the request of President Clinton, she accepted the position of assistant secretary for policy and evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). In 2001, Dr. Hamburg became vice president for biological programs at the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a foundation dedicated to reducing the threat to public safety from nuclear, chemical, and biologi- cal weapons. Since 2005, she has served as the Initiative’s senior scientist. Upon Dr. Hamburg’s confirmation as FDA commissioner, HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius praised her as “an inspiring public health leader with broad experience in infectious disease, bioterrorism, and health policy.” Salmaan Keshavjee, M.D., Ph.D., M.A., Sc.M., is a physician and anthro- pologist. He is assistant professor in two departments at Harvard Medical School, as well as associate physician at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Faulkner Hospital. At PIH, he is senior MDR TB specialist. From 2006 to 2008, Dr. Keshavjee was research direc- tor and deputy country director for the Lesotho Initiative. His clinical research has focused on the implementation of drug-resistant TB treatment projects run by PIH. Since 2007 he has also led PIH’s Russia research ini- tiative, coordinating a multidisciplinary team studying treatment outcomes in drug-resistant TB. This work is informing efforts to treat drug-resistant TB in the region, including Central Asia, and has resulted in several manu- scripts. Most recently, a report on the treatment of XDR TB for which Dr. Keshavjee is lead author appeared in the Lancet. The results of this research in Russia have guided WHO’s revised guidelines for the treatment of drug-resistant TB. Dr. Keshavjee served as an editor of this document, which appeared in 2008. He also represents PIH as chair of WHO’s Green

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131 APPENDIX C Light Committee (GLC) for MDR TB, WHO’s principal global structure for expansion of MDR TB treatment. In this capacity, he advises national programs on the clinical and programmatic management of this disease. Elena Evgenievna Larionova, Ph.D., is a senior research scientist within the Department of Microbiology, Central TB Research Institute (CTRI), Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS) in Moscow. In 1986 she received her Ph.D. in biology from the State Pedagogical Institute in Mos- cow. (Microbiology) Gamaleya Epidemiology and Microbiology Research Institute RAMS, Moscow; 2005, 1996–2011 Senior Researcher, Molecular Genetic Lab Microbiological Department, Central TB Research Institute RAMS. Dr. Larionova’s scientific interests include: experimental research in differential diagnostics of a tubercular infection; genotyping of M.tb. using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, and variable number tandem repeat amplification (VNTR-typing); and drug resistance of mycobacteria testing by both microbiological techniques and by detection of genomic point mutations. Barbara Laughon, Ph.D., is Senior Scientist for TB Drug Development Partnerships in the Office of the Director, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), U.S. National Institutes of Health. In this role, she promotes research on TB drugs through collaborations among public, private, and multilateral organizations by interfacing with NIAID research grants, coop- erative agreements, and contracts focused on preclinical and clinical anti- infective drug development for emerging infectious diseases and biodefense. She is active in the STOP-TB Partnership serving in working groups on New Drugs and HIV/TB, and is an executive member of the not-for-profit Lilly TB Drug Discovery Initiative (www.tbdrugdiscovery.org/). Dr. Laughon has served the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development as Chair, Scientific Advisory Committee, as a founding stakeholder, and as a contributor to the preclinical development of PA-824. She has over 20 years of leadership experience in drug development for HIV, opportunistic infections, and TB through oversight of NIH extramural programs in drug discovery, IND- enabling studies, and clinical trials. She serves as advisor to PEPFAR, the U.S. Federal TB Taskforce, the U.S. CDC TB Trials Consortium, and the Global Fund. Prior to joining the NIAID, Dr. Laughon was an assistant pro- fessor of medicine in infectious diseases at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Her research involved the pathophysiology of Clostridium difficile colitis, anaerobic lung abscess, and clinical research on AIDS. Dr. Laughon received her M.S. and Ph.D. in microbiology from the Anaerobe Laboratory at Virginia Tech with a dissertation on the ultrastructure and biochemistry of anaerobic spirochetes. As a postdoctoral scholar at the

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132 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA University of Michigan, she characterized the pathogenic role of anaerobes in advanced periodontal disease. She is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, a member of the American Society for Microbiology, the IUATLD, and the International AIDS Society. She has published over 50 scientific and review articles. Renzhong Li has been director of the Drug-Resistant TB Department of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, located in Bei- jing, China, since March 2007. From July 1986 to February 2008, he was associate professor at Shandong Provincial TB Dispensary. He received a bachelor’s degree in 1986 and a master’s degree in 2004 from Shandong Medical University. Edward Anthony Nardell, M.D., is a pulmonologist with a special inter- est in TB. He trained in pulmonary medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, with additional research training at Boston University School of Medicine. While at Boston City Hospital, he became director of TB control for the City of Boston. In 1981 he became chief of pulmonary medicine and director of TB control for the city of Cambridge, positions he held until 2005. His principal academic appointment is as associate professor of medicine, Harvard Medical School, with secondary parallel appointments in the Department of Social Medicine and Harvard School of Public Health. In the early 1980s, Dr. Nardell became medical director of TB control for the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, a position he held for 18 years. In 2002 he joined PIH as director of TB research. In 2005 he left Cambridge Hospital to assume a full-time research position in the Depart- ment of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, the hospital arm of PIH. He is also a member of the Pulmonary Division at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, where he serves on the pul- monary consult service. Dr. Nardell’s research interests include the control of MDR TB in Peru, Russia, and other high-burden countries. His special research interest is airborne TB transmission and control. He currently has a project in South Africa, funded by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), studying the transmission of MDR TB using large numbers of guinea pigs to quantify the infectiousness of MDR TB patients and the effectiveness of various control interventions, including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. Dr. Nardell is past president of the Mas- sachusetts Thoracic Society and the North American Region, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. He was the 2005 recipient of the Chadwick Medal of the Massachusetts Thoracic Society. Dale Nordenberg, M.D., is a principal with Novasano Health and Science. He is a physician executive who leverages his experience as a pediatri-

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133 APPENDIX C cian, medical epidemiologist, and informatician to deliver strategic, opera- tional, and scientific services to domestic and international clients in the health care and health information technology arenas. Recent projects include the development of a public−private partnership to build labora- tory capacity for MDR TB across diverse international settings, which he is currently leading; development of governance structures for the National Biosurveillance System for Human Health; development of a multi-institu- tional collaboration to revise U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory processes to establish standards for national laboratory data exchange; and the evaluation of emerging diagnostics related to the gut microbiome from both the scientific and clinical perspectives. For the past few years, Dr. Nordenberg has been working as a health care consultant, first with PricewaterhouseCoopers and then with Novasano. From 2002 through 2007, he held various positions at CDC, including associate direc- tor and chief information officer and senior advisor for strategic planning. Dr. Nordenberg has led and participated in many disease surveillance, outbreak response, and bioterrorism preparedness and response activities and associated informatics initiatives. He has worked extensively in the arena of pandemic influenza preparedness and response. He was detailed part time to the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Informa- tion Technology in 2004−2005 to catalyze a national strategy for children’s health information technology. In 2007 and 2009, Dr. Nordenberg was a member of the Science and Technology Subcommittee of the FDA’s Sci- ence Advisory Board, which was tasked with the evaluation of science and technology at the FDA. Prior to serving with CDC, Dr. Nordenberg was a founding executive of a company that launched VeriSign affiliates in Latin America and Asia and was a member of the faculty of the Emory School of Medicine, where founded and directed the Office of Medical Informatics for the Emory University Children’s Center. He has served on the boards of numerous companies. Dr. Nordenberg is a board-certified pediatrician. He received a B.S. in microbiology from the University of Michigan and his medical degree from Northwestern University, and completed his train- ing in pediatrics at McGill University, Montreal Children’s Hospital. He completed his fellowship in epidemiology and public health in the Epidemic Intelligence Service program at CDC. Mikhail I. Perelman, M.D., is chief of phthisiopulmonology and thoracic surgery at I.M. Sechenov’s Moscow Medical Academy. Since 1986 he has been academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS). He has also held the rank of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1980) and professor of surgery (1964). Academician Perelman received his medical degree in 1945 from Jaroslavl Medical Insti- tute. Prior to joining the Moscow Medical Academy in 1981, Academi-

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134 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA cian Perelman was chief of thoracic surgery at Moscow’s National Center for Surgery. He served as the chief of thoracic surgery at the Institute for Experimental Biology and Medicine in Novosibirsk from 1958 to 1962 and was assistant professor at the Central Institute for Continued Medical Education from 1955 to 1958. His public posts have included president of the Russian Society for Phthisiology, national delegate in the Societe Inter- nationale de Chirurgie, and general secretary of USSR Society of Surgeons. He participates in a number of international professional organizations and honorary membership organizations and is active in international journal editorial staffs (International Trends in General Thoracic Surgery and World Journal of Surgery). Carlos M. Pérez-Vélez, M.D., D.T.M.H., is an adult and pediatric infec- tious disease physician. He is originally from Medellín, Colombia, where he attended medical school and completed a rotating internship, both at the University of Antioquia. He completed a research fellowship in allergy and immunology at Yale University and a residency in internal medicine and pediatrics at New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. He also obtained a diploma of tropical medicine and hygiene from the Gorgas Memorial Institute of Tropical and Preven- tive Medicine of the University of Alabama. After completing fellowships in adult and pediatric infectious diseases at the University of Colorado and the Children’s Hospital, he joined the faculty of National Jewish Health and of the University of Colorado School of Medicine. In 2006, he established a TB clinical research field site in the city of Buenaventura in Southwest- ern Colombia, which he currently maintains with his research team, the Grupo Tuberculosis Valle Colorado. The team is carrying out a diagnostic study comparing alternative specimen collection methods to improve the bacteriological confirmation of pulmonary TB in children, as well as a drug resistance study in this population. Benjamin Potashnikov is Development Director of Biocom. Mr. Potashnikov’s education background includes: North-Caucasus State Technical University (1996–2001), with a specialization in finance and credit and a course of studies in good manufacturing practices (GMP). Mr. Potashnikov also specialized in solid pharmaceutical manufacturing and practical guidelines. Mr. Potashnikov’s main interests include regulatory affairs, export, contract manufacturing, marketing, research and development, supplies, external economic activity, and sales. Gary Reubenson, MBBCh, FCPaeds, DCH, DTM&H, is a pediatrician working at Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, University of the

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135 APPENDIX C Witwatersrand, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, in Johannes- burg, South Africa. In 2004 Dr. Reubenson initiated an outreach service for Sizwe Hospital, the provincial MDR TB treatment facility, primarily to provide assistance in the hospital’s management of HIV-infected pediatric patients; this effort also provided an opportunity to learn more about pediatric drug-resistant TB. Since 2005, Dr. Reubenson has been a member of the Gauteng Provincial Expert Panel on the management of MDR and XDR TB in the province. Svetlana Safonova, Dr.Sci.Biol., is chief bacteriologist of Russia’s Federal Correction System. She is a doctor of biology and recognized expert in microbiological diagnostics of TB. Dr. Safonova coordinates all bacterio- Safonova bacterio- logical laboratories under the Russian implementation system. Elina Sevastyanova, D.Sc., is a senior research scientist within the Depart- ment of Microbiology, Central TB Research Institute (CTRI), Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS). Her educational background includes Moscow Technological Institute of Food Industry, Department of Microbiology (1981–1986); postgraduate studies at the Microbiology Department of Moscow Technological Institute of Food Industry (1986– 1989); candidate of sciences (Ph.D.), specializing in biotechnology (1990); initial specialization in phthisiology and pulmonology at CTRI (1997); WHO-recommended microbiological diagnosis of TB at CTRI (1998); and doctor of sciences (D.Sc.), specializing in microbiology (2010). Throughout her career, Dr. Sevastyanova has completed a number of WHO training courses covering such topics as methods of microbiological diagnosis of TB, management of TB at the district level, and training for the management of laboratory networks in the National Tuberculosis Control Program. Dr. Sevastyanova’s main research interests include mycobacteriology, smear microscopy, culture examination, drug susceptibility testing, organization of TB microbiological diagnosis and TB laboratory service, biosafety in TB laboratories, elaboration of methods for improving microbiological diagnosis of TB in the Russian Federation, and preparation of normative documents concerning microbiological diagnosis of TB. Sonya Shin, M.D., M.P.H., is an associate physician in the Division of Global Health and Division of Infectious Diseases at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and assistant professor at the Harvard School of Medicine. She has worked with PIH for 18 years. Dr. Shin’s area of expertise is in community- based collaborations to provide complex health interventions in resource- poor settings. She has worked in Peru, Russia, Boston, Haiti, and elsewhere in operational research and programmatic scale-up of such interventions.

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136 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA Tatiana G. Smirnova, Ph.D., is senior researcher, molecular-genetic research laboratory at the CTRI of RAMS, Moscow. In 2005 she received her Ph.D. in microbiology from Gamaleya Epidemiology and Microbiology Research Institute of RAMS, Moscow. From 1998 to 2006 she was a researcher in the molecular-genetic research laboratory at CTRI. Dr. Smirnova studied at the Russian State Medical University in Moscow from 1992 to 1998. Dr. Smirnova’s scientific interests include: genotyping of M.tb. using different techniques; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) real-time; and carrying out of experimental research in TB infection in vivo (development of different model of tuberculosis infection in mice), ex vivo (infection of eukaryotic cell culture with M.tb.), and in vitro (investigation of new anti- tuberculosis drug effect against M.tb. strains). Janet Tobias is a media/technology executive and an Emmy award-winning director/producer with 20 years experience working for all three American networks, PBS, Discovery, and MSNBC. Ms. Tobias started her career at 60 Minutes as Diane Sawyer’s associate producer. At 60 Minutes she dis- tinguished herself working on a wide range of domestic and international stories including: a portrait of the Yakuza, the Japanese organized crime syndicate, and investigations into the lack of regulation in infertility treat- ment and the abuse of boys in a Guatemalan orphanage. Ms. Tobias moved with Ms. Sawyer to ABC News to launch Prime Time Live. At ABC she produced/directed both domestic and international stories ranging from a case study of organ donation to a portrait of the Kuwaiti royal family after the first Gulf War. After a short stint away from the networks to write a feature film screenplay, Ms. Tobias returned to NBC and moved into man- agement at Dateline NBC. As a national producer at Dateline NBC, she supervised pieces on medical ethics and the home health care industry. She also continued to produce/direct her own stories ranging from a historical look back at Soviet misinformation campaigns to an investigation into oil development in the Ecuadoran rainforest. Ms. Tobias left NBC News to become an Executive Producer at VNI (which became New York Times Television). There she supervised the production of a foreign news show and reporting on a variety of foreign stories including an award-winning piece on rape as a war crime in Rwanda that appeared on Nightline. Ms. Tobias then returned to ABC News to head up editorial activities at its newly created Law and Justice Unit where she reported, directed, and supervised legal and criminal justice stories for all ABC news programs: Nightline, 20/20, World News Tonight, and Good Morning America. In 1998 Ms. Tobias and begin working as an executive with PBS, where she developed and produced programming not only for PBS but also joint projects with ABC and Discovery. She continued her directing and writing career winning two American Bar Association silver gavels for a 4-hour

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137 APPENDIX C Frontline/Nightline project on the juvenile justice system in California. In 2001, she launched Life 360, a weekly PBS series hosted by Michel Martin that combined documentary pieces with dramatic and comic monologues. Life 360 launched just after 9/11 to laudatory reviews and won an Emmy in its first season. In 2002, Ms. Tobias ventured into the technology world when she joined Sawyer Media Systems, a Sequoia backed creator of video technology for the web. At Sawyer, Ms. Tobias was Vice President of Pro- duction and a member of the executive committee. Clients at Sawyer Media Systems included: Cisco, Genentech, Purina, Nextel, and Autodesk. At the same time, Ms. Tobias continued to be involved in documentary produc- tion through her own company Sierra/Tango Productions. At Sierra/Tango she developed and supervised 17 films for MSNBC on a variety of social issues ranging from illegal immigration to the life of teenagers in America. In 2004, she branched further into new media working as a founding partner of Ikana Media. Ikana Media is a digital strategy and produc- tion company whose primary focus is on health care information. Clients include AARP, Johnson & Johnson, Cisco Systems, Time Inc., and both WNET and WGBH. At Ikana, Ms. Tobias leads the strategy and creative work. Over the past 5 years she has worked with a variety of clients in the health care space on subjects ranging from broad-based delivery of health care information to communications efforts around obesity and HIV/AIDS. Her focus areas: looking at business opportunities in health care informa- tion, technology and health care in the third world, designing digital plans for health care communication, and creating innovative rich media content focused on health, wellness, and medical research. In addition, Ikana Media has produced a variety of television programs covering medical issues. The subjects of two recent films for MSNBC were innovation in neurosurgery and the need for physical and psychological support for soldiers returning from Iraq. In addition to her National Emmy and Bar Association awards, other awards include two Cine Golden Eagles, two Casey medals for meri- torious journalism, a National Headliner Award, a Sigma Delta Chi Award, and honorable mention Robert F. Kennedy Journalism and Overseas Press Awards. Janet Tobias is a member of the Writers Guild of America and a graduate of Yale University. She serves on the boards of Healthright Inter- national, Mindset Media Society, Rwanda Works and SochiReporter. She served from January to September 2009 as a senior fellow at the University of British Columbia, Sauder School of Business Centre for Sustainability and Social Innovation. Irina Vasilyeva, D.Sc., is head, associate professor within the Department of Phtisiopulmonology at the CTRI of RAMS in Moscow. Dr. Vasilyeva’s education background includes: I.M. Sechenov’s Moscow Medical Institute (M.D.) from 1984 to 1990; postgraduate studies in pulmonology and TB at

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138 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN RUSSIA the CTRI from 1990 to 1994; Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) in phtisiopulm- onology at the CTRI in 1997; and Doctor of Medical Sciences (D.Sc. Medi- cine), phtisiopulmonology at the CTRI in 2002. Throughout her career Dr. Vasilyeva has completed a number of international training courses such as: “Tuberculosis Comprehensive: International Approaches with Special Emphasis on MDR Training Program” at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ); “Tuberculosis Training Programme” at the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis in Berlin, Germany; “Regional Training in TB Control Programme Management” through the WHO/KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation; “WHO Training Course for TB Consultants,” through the WHO/Center for Control of TB and Lung Dis- eases in Europe. Dr. Vasilyeva’s primary research interests include: clinical research in pulmonary TB; treatment of MDR/XDR TB; clinical trials; molecular-genetic drug susceptibility testing; TB programmatic manage- ment; and the writing of treatment guidelines for TB and MDR TB. Dr. Vasilyeva is a WHO expert and author of 105 scientific publications. Marina Yakimova, Ph.D., is a leading researcher within the Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics and Information Technologies, Central TB Research Institute (CTRI), Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS). Dr. Yakimova’s education background includes Tashkent Medical Academy (1971–1977), speciality—therapy, postgraduate studies at the Institute of Medical Genetics of RAMS (1981–1984), Candidate of Sciences, Ph.D. the- sis “Genetics of Lung Diseases” (1984). Specialization in phthisiology and pulmonology at Central TB Research Institute of RAMS (2004). Through- out her career, Dr. Yakimova has completed a number of WHO training courses. Dr. Yakimova’s main research interests include early diagnosis of TB at general health care institutions, TB epidemiology in the regions of Russian Federation, differential diagnostics of TB and other lung diseases, preparation of normative documents on medical aid to TB patients. Dr. Yakimova is a WHO independent expert Danila Zimenkov, M.D., Ph.D., received his M.D. in 1999 in biophysics and radiation safety from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Rus- sia. In 2005 he received his Ph.D. in molecular biology from the Institute of Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms (GosNIIGenetika), From 1998 to 2008, Dr. Zimenkov worked at the closed joint stock com- pany Ajinomoto-Genetika Research Institute in a number of positions of increasing responsibility—from laboratory assistant to group leader. Since April 2008, Dr. Zimenkov has held the position of researcher at the Labora- tory of Microbiology Biochips, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow, and researcher at Biochip-IMB company.

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139 APPENDIX C Paul Zintl, M.P.A., is chief operating officer for Partners In Health (PIH) and senior advisor for planning and finance for the Program in Infec- tious Disease and Social Change (PIDSC) at Harvard Medical School. He joined PIH and Harvard Medical School in January 2002. Previously, Mr. Zintl was a managing director of J.P. Morgan & Co. in New York, where he worked for 18 years, until 1995. In this capacity, his responsibilities included management, control, analysis, and evaluation of the firm’s trad- ing businesses. After leaving J.P. Morgan, he studied state criminal justice systems and worked as a private consultant for 2 years. In 1998 he received a master in public administration degree from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard.

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