Appendix B
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, Workshop Speakers, and Workshop Discussants

George W. Bohrnstedt (Chair) is senior vice president for research emeritus at the American Institutes for Research, where he is involved in the development of new programs of research for the organization and brings a deep interest in education research and policy issues. He has had an interest in measurement in the social sciences throughout his professional career, growing out of his minor in educational psychology with an emphasis on tests and measurement. He currently chairs the National Center for Education Statistics’ Validity Studies Panel for the National Assessment of Educational Progress. He has B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in sociology and a minor in educational psychology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.


Christine A. Bachrach is a visiting scholar at the Social Science Research Institute at Duke University and research professor in the School of Behavioral and Social Sciences at the University of Maryland. Her scientific interests and publications span the areas of fertility, family formation, marriage and divorce, adoption, sexual behavior, contraceptive practice, population health, and survey methodology. Her current research focuses on the measurement and integration of cultural schemas in social demography. She has an M.A. in sociology from Georgetown University and a Ph.D. in population dynamics from Johns Hopkins University.


Norman M. Bradburn is Tiffany and Margaret Blake distinguished service professor emeritus of the University of Chicago and a senior fellow at the National Opinion Research Center (NORC). Associated with NORC



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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, Workshop Speakers, and Workshop Discussants George W. Bohrnstedt (Chair) is senior vice president for research emeritus at the American Institutes for Research, where he is involved in the develop- ment of new programs of research for the organization and brings a deep interest in education research and policy issues. He has had an interest in measurement in the social sciences throughout his professional career, growing out of his minor in educational psychology with an emphasis on tests and measurement. He currently chairs the National Center for Education Statistics’ Validity Studies Panel for the National Assessment of Educational Progress. He has B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in sociology and a minor in educational psychology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Christine A. Bachrach is a visiting scholar at the Social Science Research Institute at Duke University and research professor in the School of Be- havioral and Social Sciences at the University of Maryland. Her scientific interests and publications span the areas of fertility, family formation, marriage and divorce, adoption, sexual behavior, contraceptive practice, population health, and survey methodology. Her current research focuses on the measurement and integration of cultural schemas in social demogra- phy. She has an M.A. in sociology from Georgetown University and a Ph.D. in population dynamics from Johns Hopkins University. Norman M. Bradburn is Tiffany and Margaret Blake distinguished service professor emeritus of the University of Chicago and a senior fellow at the National Opinion Research Center (NORC). Associated with NORC 89

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90 APPENDIX B since 1961, he has been both director and president of its Board of Trust- ees. At the National Research Council, he has chaired the Committee on National Statistics, the panel to advise the Census Bureau on alternative methods for conducting the census in the year 2000, the panel to review the National Assessment of Educational Progress, and the panel to assess the 2000 census. Bradburn has a Ph.D. in social psychology from Harvard University. Kathleen A. Cagney is associate professor in the Departments of Health Studies, Sociology, and Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago. Her work examines social inequality and its relationship to health, with a focus on neighborhood, race, and aging and the life course. She is principal investigator of a study that explores neighborhood social context and its role in the health and well-being of older Chicagoans. She is director of the Population Research Center, codirector of the Center on the Demography and Economics of Aging, and a senior fellow at the National Opinion Research Center. She has a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University and an M.P.P. from the University of Chicago. Nancy D. Cartwright is professor of philosophy in the Department of Phi- losophy, Logic and Scientific Method in the London School of Economics and Political Science; she is also professor of philosophy at the University of California, San Diego. Her principal interests are the philosophy and history of science (especially physics and economics), causal inference, and evidence and objectivity in science and policy. She is currently president of the Philosophy of Science Association and past president of the American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division. Cartwright has a Ph.D. in phi- losophy from the University of Illinois, Chicago. Harris Cooper is professor of psychology and chair of the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. His work involves research syntheses and meta-analysis in varied fields, such as personality and social psychology, developmental psychology, marketing, and devel- opmental medicine and child neurology, and the application of social and developmental psychology to education policy issues. He is past editor of the Psychological Bulletin and currently serves as the chief editorial adviser for the journals program of the American Psychological Association. He has a Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Connecticut. Dennis Fryback is professor emeritus in population health sciences and in industrial and systems engineering at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He has specialized in methodological issues underpinning medical decision making, cost-effectiveness analysis of health care interventions, and health

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91 APPENDIX B policy. He has headed projects on the evaluation of medical imaging tech- nologies, computer simulation applied to understanding the natural his- tory of breast cancer, application of Bayesian analysis to cost-effectiveness computations, and application of health-related quality of life measures to populations. He continues to conduct research using the public data set he helped to create, the U.S. National Health Measurement Study. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. He has a Ph.D. in mathematical psychology from the University of Michigan. David B. Grusky is professor of sociology at Stanford University, director of the Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality, coeditor of Pathways Magazine, and coeditor of the Stanford University Press Social Inequality Series. His research addresses issues of inequality and takes on such ques- tions as whether and why gender, racial, and class-based inequalities are growing stronger, why they differ in strength across countries, and how such changes and differences are best measured. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a recipient of the 2004 Max Weber Award, founder of the Cornell University Center for the Study of Inequality, and a former Presidential Young Investigator. He has M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Robert M. Hauser is executive director, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council and Vilas Re- search Professor, Emeritus, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He has worked on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study since 1969 and directed it since 1980. His current research interests include trends in educational progres- sion and social mobility in the United States among racial and ethnic groups, the uses of educational assessment as a policy tool, the effects of families on social and economic inequality, and changes in socioeconomic standing, health, and well-being across the life course. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has served on the National Research Council’s Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and Board on Testing and Assessment; he also has served on numerous research panels of the National Research Council and has chaired panel studies of high-stakes testing and standards for adult literacy. He has a B.A. in economics from the University of Chicago and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of Michigan. Rick Hoyle is professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University, where he serves as associate director of the Center for Child and Family Policy and director of the Methodology and Statistics Core in the Trans- disciplinary Prevention Research Center. The primary focus of his research

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92 APPENDIX B is the study of basic cognitive, affective, and social processes involved in self-regulation. This research comprises two streams: one primarily involves controlled laboratory experiments focused on the social and psychological resources that enable successful self-regulation, and the other primarily involves correlational and field research focused on personality and social processes associated with failures of self-regulation as they manifest in problem behavior. He has a Ph.D. in psychology (social psychology pro- gram) from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Sheila Jasanoff is Pforzheimer professor of science and technology studies at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she directs the Program on Science, Technology, and Society. Her research focuses on the relationship of science and technology to law, politics, and policy in modern democratic societies, with particular emphasis on the role of science in cultures of public participation and public reasoning. She has written and lectured widely on environmental regulation, risk management, and the politics of the life sciences in the United States, Europe, and India. She has a Ph.D. in linguistics from Harvard University and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. Rebecca A. Maynard is university trustee chair professor of education and social policy in the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Educa- tion. Her work involves the design and conduct of rigorous randomized controlled trials in the areas of education and social policy, having overseen the design and implementation of dozens of experimental-design and multi- method evaluations of important programs and policies in both school and community settings. In recent years, she also has contributed to the develop- ment of practices for improving application of systematic review methods to education research, policy, and practice. She has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Robert T. Michael is Eliakim Hastings Moore distinguished service profes- sor emeritus in the Harris School of Public Policy Studies at the Univer- sity of Chicago and project director of the National Longitudinal Studies Program of the National Opinion Research Center. His primary research interests are adult sexual behavior, investments in children, and the mea- surement of poverty. At the National Research Council, Michael chaired panels on pay equity research and on poverty and family assistance and served as a member of groups on children, youth, and families and the design of nonmarket accounts. He has a B.A. in economics and philosophy from Ohio Wesleyan University and a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University.

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93 APPENDIX B Geoff Mulgan is director of the Young Foundation, a London-based center for social research, innovation, enterprise, and public policy with a 50-year history of pioneering sociological research and creating new organizations in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. He is also a visiting profes- profes- sor at the London School of Economics and Political Science, University College London, and Melbourne University. Between 1997 and 2004 he had various roles in the U.K. government, including director of the gov- ernment’s Strategy Unit and head of policy in the prime minister’s office. He also has been chief adviser to Member of Parliament Gordon Brown, a lecturer in telecommunications, an investment executive, and a reporter on BBC TV and radio. His most recent book is The Art of Public Strategy. He has a Ph.D. in telecommunications from the University of Westminster. Robert A. Pollak is Hernreich distinguished professor of economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and the Olin School of Business at Washington University in St. Louis. His research interests include the economics of the family, price and cost-of-living indexes, and environmental policy. At the National Research Council, he served on the Committee on National Sta- tistics panel on cost-of-living indexes. From 1997 to 2007, Pollak cochaired the MacArthur Foundation Network on the Family and the Economy, an interdisciplinary group of economists, sociologists, and developmental psy- chologists studying the functioning of families. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kenneth Prewitt is the Carnegie professor of public affairs and the vice- president for global centers at Columbia University. In addition to teaching for many years at the University of Chicago, he has served as the director of the U.S. Census Bureau, director of the National Opinion Research Center, president of the Social Science Research Council, and senior vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation. He is a lifetime National Associate of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences; a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Politi- cal and Social Science, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and the Russell-Sage Foundation; and member of other professional associa- tions. He has an M.A. from Washington University, attended the Harvard Divinity School as a Danforth fellow, and has a Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University. Barbara Schneider is the John A. Hannah distinguished professor in the College of Education and the Department of Sociology at Michigan State University. She worked for 18 years at the University of Chicago, holding

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94 APPENDIX B positions as a professor in sociology and human development and as a se- nior researcher at the National Opinion Research Center. In her research, she uses a sociological lens to understand societal conditions and interper- sonal interactions that create norms and values that enhance human and social capital. Her work focuses on how the social contexts of schools and families influence the academic and social well-being of adolescents as they move into adulthood. She has a Ph.D. from Northwestern University. C. Matthew Snipp is the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford professor in the Department of Sociology, director of the Center for the Comparative Study of Race and Ethnicity, and director of the Secure Data Center in the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences at Stanford University. His cur- rent research and writing deal with the methodology of racial measurement, changes in the social and economic well-being of American ethnic minori- ties, and American Indian education. He also has been involved with several advisory working groups evaluating the 2000 census and three National Research Council panels focused on the 2010 and 2020 censuses; has served as a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the Centers for Dis- ease Control and Prevention and the National Center for Health Statistics; and served on the council of the Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research. He has a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Miron L. Straf (Study Director) is deputy director of the Division of Behav- ioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council and study director of the division’s project on the use of social science research as evidence in public policy. Previously he served as director of the division’s Committee on National Statistics and at the National Science Foundation, where he worked on developing the research priority area for the social, behavioral, and economic sciences. He has also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, and the London School of Economics and Political Science. His major research interests are government statistics and the use of information for public policy decision making. He has a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Chicago. Jack E. Triplett has been with the Brookings Institution since 1997, cur- rently as nonresident senior fellow. Previously, he has held the positions of chief economist at the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, associate com- missioner for research and evaluation at the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and assistant director for price monitoring at the U.S. Council on Wage and Price Stability. He has been particularly interested in methodological issues involved in estimating price, output, and productivity measures for high- tech products, including computers, and for other goods and services that

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95 APPENDIX B exhibit rapid quality and technological improvements, including medical care. He has B.A, M.A., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Califor- nia, Berkeley. John Robert Warren is professor of sociology at the University of Minne- sota. In his ongoing research he is investigating methods for measuring high school completion rates, assessing the magnitude of panel conditioning bi- ases in longitudinal surveys, modeling the impact of life-course trajectories of employment and family statuses on well-being in later adulthood, and studying the factors that lead voters to support school operating levies. He is coprincipal investigator on a project to harmonize, integrate, link, and disseminate all existing data from the Current Population Survey. He is also an investigator on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, which has followed members of the Wisconsin high school class of 1957 and their families over half a century. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Robert J. Willis is professor of economics and research professor in the Survey Research Center and the Population Studies Center of the Institute for Social Research. He is the past director of the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal survey of over 22,000 persons over age 50 in the United States, and currently directs a project on cognitive economics. His research involves the economics of the family, marriage, and fertility, labor economics, human capital, and population and economic development. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Washington.

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