since 1989, except for three years (2003-2006) when he helped start the University of California at Merced as its founding dean of social sciences, humanities, and arts. He was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, is an elected member of the National Academy of Education, and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Linguistics and Language Sciences). He currently serves on the board of the Educational Testing Service and as vice-chair of the board of the Spencer Foundation. At the National Research Council, Hakuta chaired the Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited English Proficient and Bilingual Students and served on the Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity. He has a B.A. (magna cum laude) in psychology and social relations and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology, both from Harvard University.

Judith A. Koenig (Study Director) is a senior program officer for the Board on Testing and Assessment. Since 1999, she has directed measurement-related studies designed to inform education policy, including studies of the National Assessment of Educational Progress and of assessments for teacher licensure and advanced-level certification, inclusion of special needs students in assessment programs, developing assessments for state and federal accountability programs, and setting standards for the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. From 1984 to 1999, she worked at the Association of American Medical Colleges on the Medical College Admission Test, directing operational programs and leading a comprehensive research program on the examination. Prior to that, she worked for 10 years as a special education teacher and diagnostician. She has a B.A. (1975) in special education from Michigan State University, an M.A. (1984) in psychology from George Mason University, and a Ph.D. (2003) in educational measurement, statistics, and evaluation from the University of Maryland.

Russell W. Rumberger is professor of education in the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education at the University of California (UC), Santa Barbara, and former director of the Linguistic Minority Research Institute, a UC multicampus research unit established in 1984 to foster interdisciplinary research and to improve academic achievement of children from diverse language backgrounds. A faculty member at Santa Barbara since 1987, he has published widely in the areas of education and work, the schooling of disadvantaged students, school effectiveness, and education policy. He has been conducting research on school dropouts for the past 25 years and has written numerous research papers and essays on the topic. He served as a member of the Task Force on Graduation, Completion, and Dropout Indicators of the U.S. Department of Education in 2004. At the National Research Council, he was a member of the Committee on Increasing High School Students’ Engagement and Motivation to Learn and currently serves on the Committee on the Impact of Mobility and Change on the Lives of Young

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