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Acronyms α-CD20 anti-CD20, CD20 is cluster of differentiation 20, a cell surface protein α-CD33 anti-CD33, CD33 is cluster of differentiation 33 ADME absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion Apo-A1 apolipoprotein A1 ASTM organization formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials βhCG β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin BNP brain natriuretic peptide CAS Chinese Academy of Sciences CBEN Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology CCNE Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence CEN European Committee for Standardization CFU-GM colony-forming unit granulocyte macrophage CK-MB creatine kinase MB fraction (the MB fraction is most specific to cardiac muscle) CLIO-Cy5.5 cross-linked iron oxide Cy5.5 (Cy5.5 is a type of cyanine fluorescent dye) DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DEAL DNA-encoded antibody barcode 73

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74 NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY DFMO difluoromethylornithine DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOX-OXD dextran conjugated doxorubicin Doxorubicin-cBR96 doxorubicin conjugated to chimeric (α-CD174) monoclonal antibody cBR96 (anti-CD174, CD174 is cluster of differentiation 174, a cell surface protein) DTA-IL2 fusion fusion protein of diphtheria toxin fragment A protein (α-CD25) and interleukin 2 (this fusion protein targets CD25, a cell surface protein) EGCG epigallocatechin-3-gallate EGF epidermal growth factor EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EMEA European Medicines Agency EPA Environmental Protection Agency EUFETS a European contract manufacturer for cell and gene therapy FDA Food and Drug Administration Genexol-PM Genexol–polymeric micelle GFP green fluorescent protein GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor GMP good manufacturing practices gp60 60 kDa glycoprotein, an albumin binding protein hCG human chorionic gonadotrophin HER2 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 Hg mercury IBBC integrated blood barcode chip ICH International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use ICON International Council on Nanotechnology IFN-γ interferon-γ IL-1α interleukin-1α IL-1β interleukin-1β IL-2 interleukin-2

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75 ACRONYMS IL-6 interleukin-6 IL-10 interleukin-10 IL-12 interleukin-12 IND Investigational New Drug Application IOM Institute of Medicine ISO International Organization for Standardization IV intravenous KS Kaposi sarcoma LD50 median lethal dose LE-SN38 liposome-encapsulated 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin LErafAON liposome encapsulated c-raf antisense oligonucleotide LMWP low molecular weight peptide MALDI TOF MS Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry MCP-1 monocyte chemotactic protein-1 MFNP magneto/fluorescent nanoparticles MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MR magnetic resonance MRI magnetic resonance imaging MTX-HSA human serum albumin–bound methotrexate nab nanoparticle albumin-bound NCI National Cancer Institute NCL Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory NIH National Institutes of Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NK911 polymeric micelle carrier system for doxorubicin NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NNI National Nanotechnology Initiative NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSFC National Natural Science Foundation of China OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Onco-TCS Onco-transmembrane carrier system, the drug vincristine

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76 NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Administration OSI-211 liposomal lurtotecan drug manufactured by OSI Pharmaceuticals P13K phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PEG polyethylene glycol PEG-IFNα2a/-IFNα2b pegylated interferon α-2a/interferon α-2b PEG-L-asparaginase polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase PGA-paclitaxel polyglutamic acid conjugated paclitaxel PHPMA-doxorubicin poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) conjugated doxorubicin PK pharmacokinetics PK1 N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer doxorubicin PK2 N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer backbone and pendant doxorubicin (DOX) linked via a Gly-Phe-Leu- Gly peptide spacer PLD-E1A pegylated liposomal doxorubicin–linked E1A (an adenoviral oncogene) plasmid DNA PLGA polylactic-co-glycolic acid PRINT particle replication in non-wetting templates PSA prostate specific antigen RBC red blood cell RES reticuloendothelial system RNA ribonucleic acid RNAi RNA interference SGN-15 cBR96-doxorubicin immunoconjugate, SGN stands for Seattle Genetics Inc. siRNA short interfering RNA or silencing RNA SPARC secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine SPI-77 sterically stabilised liposomal cisplatin TGF-β transforming growth factor β TNF tumor necrosis factor TNF-γ tumor necrosis factor γ UK United Kingdom WBC white blood cell