ditional organic fluorescent dyes, including longer fluorescence lifetimes and the ability to fluoresce when excited with a broad range of excitation wavelengths.

reticuloendothelial system (RES)—a component of the immune system consisting primarily of macrophages and monocytes.

self-assembly—process that occurs when a system—often of similar shape, size, or composition—move from a disordered to a more ordered state as the system approaches equilibrium. Characteristics that work to effect the ordered state include physical and chemical properties such as polarizability, surface charge, and hydrophobicity and forces such as capillary action.

target moiety—a part of a molecule that is selected for binding of an antibody or drug for an assay, treatment, or medical device (such as an imaging contrast enhancer).

theranostics—molecular complexes that enable both a diagnostic test and delivery of a therapeutic agent simultaneously in a living organism.

therapeutic target—the destination for delivery, binding, or therapeutic effect of a drug or other medical treatment.

transgenic—possessing, referring to, or being a gene from one species residing in another species.

tumor necrosis factor (TNF)—a protein involved in inflammation, it causes cell death, including by causing cell death of tumor cells.

xenograft—cells, tissues, or organs that have been transferred from one species to another.


Biomarkers Definitions Working Group. 2001. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: Preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 69(3):89–95.

NNI (National Nanotechnology Initiative). 2010. What Is Nanotechnology? http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/whatIsNano.html (accessed January 3, 2011).

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