ASSESSMENT OF APPROACHES FOR USING PROCESS SAFETY METRICS AT THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS

Committee to Assess Process Safety Metrics for the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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ASSESSMENT OF APPROACHES FOR USING PROCESS SAFETY METRICS AT THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS Committee to Assess Process Safety Metrics for the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-10-C-0066 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-16345-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-16345-5 Limited copies of this report are available from Additional copies are available from Board on Army Science and Technology The National Academies Press National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 940 Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20001 Washington, DC 20055 (202) 334-3118 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern - ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE TO ASSESS PROCESS SAFETY METRICS FOR THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS OTIS A. SHELTON, Chair, Praxair, Inc., Danbury, Connecticut ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Pasadena MAURICIO FUTRAN (NAE), Independent Consultant, Westfield, New Jersey J. ROBERT GIBSON, Gibson Consulting, LLC, Wilmington, Delaware RANDAL J. KELLER, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky TIM OVERTON, TOPS Consulting, Angleton, Texas CAROL A. PALMIOTTO, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware STYRON N. POWERS, U.S. Foodservice, Rosemont, Illinois Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director JAMES C. MYSKA, Senior Research Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator v

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BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Chair, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Connecticut DAVID M. MADDOX, Vice Chair, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia DUANE ADAMS, Carnegie Mellon University (retired), Arlington, Virginia ILESANMI ADESIDA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign RAJ AGGARWAL, University of Iowa, Coralville EDWARD C. BRADY, Strategic Perspectives, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, Florida L. REGINALD BROTHERS, BAE Systems, Arlington, Virginia JAMES CARAFANO, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. W. PETER CHERRY, Independent Consultant, Ann Arbor, Michigan EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina RONALD P. FUCHS, Independent Consultant, Seattle, Washington W. HARVEY GRAY, Independent Consultant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee CARL GUERRERI, Electronic Warfare Associates, Inc., Herndon, Virginia JOHN H. HAMMOND, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Fairfax, Virginia RANDALL W. HILL, JR., University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey MARY JANE IRWIN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBIN L. KEESEE, Independent Consultant, Fairfax, Virginia ELLIOT D. KIEFF, Channing Laboratory, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts LARRY LEHOWICZ, Quantum Research International, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM L. MELVIN, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Smyrna ROBIN MURPHY, Texas A&M University, College Station SCOTT E. PARAZYNSKI, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas RICHARD R. PAUL, Independent Consultant, Bellevue, Washington JEAN D. REED, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia LEON E. SALOMON, Independent Consultant, Gulfport, Florida JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MARK J.T. SMITH, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana MICHAEL A. STROSCIO, University of Illinois, Chicago JOSEPH YAKOVAC, JVM LLC, Hampton, Virginia Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator vi

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Preface The Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives followed by different downstream processes to treat the program was mandated to use nonincineration tech- resulting waste streams. PCAPP will use biotreatment nologies to destroy the chemical weapons stockpiles at to treat waste streams from chemical agent disposal, the Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD) in Colorado and the and BGCAPP will use supercritical water oxidation. Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD) in Kentucky. These PCAPP and BGCAPP will also employ a number of two storage sites together account for about 10 percent pieces of first-of-a-kind equipment. Both facilities have of the original U.S. chemical agent stockpile that is in been designed using established engineering codes the process of being destroyed in accordance with the and principles and have incorporated lessons learned international Chemical Weapons Convention treaty. from the operation of earlier chemical agent disposal Disposal operations at six other sites in the continental operations to ensure safe operation. PCAPP is currently United States and Johnston Island in the Pacific near under construction and is planned to start agent disposal Hawaii have already destroyed over 80 percent of the operations in 2014. BGCAPP is also under construc- stockpile. Incineration technology was used by the now tion, with operations to commence in 2018. closed disposal facility on Johnston Island, and at a As part of its focus on safe operation of the planned facility in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, which has completed facilities, the Program Manager for Assembled Chemi- operations and has entered closure. Chemical neutral- cal Weapons Alternatives asked the National Research ization (hydrolysis) technology was used to destroy Council (NRC) to conduct a study to offer guidance bulk mustard agent and VX nerve agent at the now on the application of process safety metrics at PCAPP closed facilities in Aberdeen, Maryland, and Newport, and BGCAPP. The committee that was assembled by Indiana, respectively. Disposal campaigns at the three the NRC held a number of meetings, virtual meetings, other currently operating facilities, which use incinera- and teleconferences. It also visited the offices of staff tion technology, are nearing completion. working on the PCAPP and BGCAPP projects. The Pueblo site contains the larger portion of the Among the process safety considerations discussed remaining stockpile inventory in the form of various in this report is the applicability of the James Reason mustard agent projectiles. While the Blue Grass inven- barrier model’s concept of layers of protection to the tory is relatively small, it is more diverse and contains chemical processes being designed at PCAPP and both mustard agent in various projectiles and the nerve BGCAPP. Also discussed extensively is the use of leading and lagging process safety metrics1 that could agents GB and VX in various projectiles and M55 rockets. The two facilities being built at these sites, the provide feedback on the effectiveness of controls to Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction mitigate risks and minimize consequences of potential Pilot Plants (PCAPP and BGCAPP, respectively), will use chemical neutralization to destroy chemical agent, 1“Leading metric” and “lagging metric” are defined in Appendix A. vii

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viii PREFACE incidents and, it is hoped, prevent incidents that might timely responses to numerous committee requests for otherwise occur. Several recommendations are made to information. Raj K. Malhotra, deputy, Risk Directorate facilitate the development and application of process at the Chemical Materials Agency (CMA), approved safety metrics at both sites. committee access to records of incidents at CMA As chair of this committee, I want to express my facilities to identify incident casual factors. This access sincere thanks to the members of this committee. Their was instrumental in allowing the committee to identify insights on safety culture, especially as it relates to pro- several leading process safety metrics. Lastly, I want cess safety management, were invaluable in executing to thank Deanna Sparger and Nia Johnson for their the statement of task. James Myska, senior research administrative and research support to the committee. associate at the Board on Army Science and Technol- Without their assistance, the preparation of the report ogy, assisted Bruce Braun, director of the Board on would have been much more difficult. Army Science and Technology, in running this study. Mr. Myska excelled at keeping the committee focused Otis A. Shelton, Chair and ensuring that work was accomplished in a timely Committee to Assess Process Safety Metrics manner. C.T. Anderson, a safety and surety engineer for the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical at the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants Weapons Alternatives, was very helpful in providing

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by indi- James F. Mathis, NAE, Exxon Corporation viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and techni- (retired); cal expertise, in accordance with procedures approved George W. Parshall, NAS, E.I. du Pont de by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Nemours and Co. (retired); Review Committee. The purpose of this independent Ian Travers, United Kingdom Health and Safety review is to provide candid and critical comments Executive; and that will assist the institution in making its published Ronald Willey, Northeastern University. report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, Although the reviewers listed above have provided and responsiveness to the study charge. The review many constructive comments and suggestions, they comments and draft manuscript remain confidential were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recom- to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We mendations nor did they see the final draft of the report wish to thank the following individuals for their review before its release. The review of this report was over- of this report: seen by Elisabeth M. Drake, NAE, MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment. Appointed by the Scott Berger, American Institute of Chemical National Research Council, she was responsible for Engineers Center for Chemical Process making certain that an independent examination of this Safety; report was carried out in accordance with institutional Deborah L. Grubbe, Operations and Safety procedures and that all review comments were carefully Solutions, LLC; considered. Responsibility for the final content of this Alexander MacLachlan, NAE, E.I. du Pont de report rests entirely with the authoring committee and Nemours and Co. (retired); the institution. M. Sam Mannan, Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center; ix

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 The Chemical Weapons Stockpile Disposal Program, 7 The Safety Challenge—Process Safety Metrics, 8 Statement of Task, 9 Process Safety Management, 9 Process Safety Management at PCAPP and BGCAPP, 10 Committee Makeup and Meeting Schedule and Report Scope and Approach, 10 Overview of Report, 11 Reference, 12 2 OVERVIEW OF AGENT DESTRUCTION PROCESSES AT PUEBLO CHEMICAL 13 AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANT AND BLUE GRASS CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANT PCAPP Process Overview, 13 BGCAPP Process Overview, 18 Rocket Processing, 18 Projectile Processing, 20 Neutralization of Chemical Agent, 20 First-of-a-Kind Process Equipment, 20 Systemization, 20 References, 22 3 REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF PROCESS SAFETY INCIDENTS AT OTHER 23 CHEMICAL DEMILITARIZATION SITES Reference, 25 xi

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xii CONTENTS 4 IDENTIFICATION AND USE OF PROCESS SAFETY METRICS 26 Introduction, 26 Process Safety Metrics from Industry and Organizations, 26 American Institute of Chemical Engineers’ Center for Chemical Process Safety Metrics, 26 American Petroleum Institute Metrics, 27 United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive Metrics, 29 Applicability of Published Chemical and Petroleum Industry Metrics to PCAPP and BGCAPP, 30 Process Safety Metrics Derived from Prior Operating Experience at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities, 30 Other Process Safety Metrics That May Be Relevant to PCAPP and BGCAPP, 31 Process Safety Near-Miss Events, 31 Action Item Closure, 32 Completion of Emergency Response Drills, 32 Management of Change, 32 Metrics Related to Other Management Systems, 32 Examples of ACWA Process-Specific Metrics, 33 Management of Best Practices of Process Safety Metrics in Industry, 35 Process Safety Competency, 35 References, 36 APPENDIXES A Glossary 39 B Committee Meetings and Activities 40 C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 42

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Tables, Figures, and Box TABLES S-1 First-of-a-Kind Equipment and Processes That Could Pose Significant Challenges for PCAPP and BGCAPP, 2 2-1 Physical Properties of Nerve Agents, 14 2-2 Physical Properties of Mustard Agents, 14 2-3 Chemical Weapons Stockpile Stored at PCD, 17 2-4 Chemical Weapons Stockpile Stored at BGAD, 18 2-5 First-of-a-Kind Equipment and Processes That Could Pose Significant Challenges for PCAPP and BGCAPP, 21 3-1 Frequency of Causal Factors in the 81 Chemical Events Reviewed by the Chemical Events Committee in 2002, 24 3-2 Frequency of Causal Factors in the 121 Events at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Since 2001, 24 FIGURES 2-1 A 105-mm howitzer projectile, 15 2-2 A 155-mm howitzer projectile, 15 2-3 A 4.2-inch mortar cartridge, 15 2-4 An 8-inch projectile, 16 2-5 An M55 rocket, 16 2-6 PCAPP process flow chart, 17 2-7 BGCAPP process flow chart, 19 2-8 Overview of the systemization process, 22 4-1 Hierarchy of leading and lagging metrics illustrated by the James Reason barrier model (left) and the Pyramid model of incident categories (right), 28 4-2 Illustration of the Swiss cheese model, 28 4-3 Process flow diagram for agent neutralization, 33 4-4 Diagram of EBH, 34 BOX 4-1 Definitions of Tier 1-4 Process Safety Events from API Recommended Practice (RP) 754, 29 xiii

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Acronyms and Abbreviations ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons HD distilled mustard agent Alternatives HSE United Kingdom Health and Safety ANCDF Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Executive Facility HT mustard agent with an additive to lower ANR agent neutralization reactor its freezing point ANS agent neutralization system ANSI American National Standards Institute IOD integrated operational demonstration APB agent processing building API American Petroleum Institute JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System BGAD Blue Grass Army Depot BGCAPP Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction LOPC loss of primary containment Pilot Plant LPMD linear projectile mortar disassembly BRS brine reduction system BTA biotreatment area MOC management of change MPT metal parts treater MSM munitions storage magazine CAM cavity access machine MTU munitions treatment unit CCPS Center for Chemical Process Safety MWS munitions washout system CMA Chemical Materials Agency CSB Chemical Safety Board NRC National Research Council EBH energetics batch hydrolyzer ORR operational readiness review EDT explosive destruction technology OSHA Occupational Safety and Health ENR energetics neutralization reactor Administration ERB enhanced reconfiguration building OTE offgas treatment system for EBH OTM offgas treatment system for MPT FOAK first of a kind OTS offgas treatment system GB a nerve agent, also known as sarin PCAPP Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant H mustard agent PCD Pueblo Chemical Depot xv

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xvi ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS PMACWA Program Manager for Assembled SCWO supercritical water oxidation Chemical Weapons Alternatives SDU supplemental decontamination unit PMD projectile mortar disassembly SFT shipping and firing tube PSI process safety incident SOP standard operating procedure PSM process safety metrics VX a nerve agent RCM rocket cutter machine RO reverse osmosis WRS water recovery system RSM rocket shear machine