C
Characteristics of NASA’s Recent Interagency Collaborations

Table C.1 shows a side-by-side comparison of some of the key attributes of selected recent interagency collaborative efforts that were reviewed by the committee. In addition to the type of collaboration and governance structure, the committee noted whether the collaboration was directed by Congress or the administration or whether it emerged in a more spontaneous fashion from the agencies and scientists themselves.



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C Characteristics of NASA’s Recent Interagency Collaborations Table C.1 shows a side-by-side comparison of some of the key attributes of selected recent interagency col - laborative efforts that were reviewed by the committee. In addition to the type of collaboration and governance structure, the committee noted whether the collaboration was directed by Congress or the administration or whether it emerged in a more spontaneous fashion from the agencies and scientists themselves. 49

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50 ASSESSMENT OF IMPEDIMENTS TO INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION ON SPACE AND EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS TABLE C.1 Selected Recent Interagency Collaborative Efforts NPOESSa OSTM/Jason-2 Fermi/GLAST JDEM/Omega Nation(s) United States United States, United States United States Involved France Type of Cooperation Coordination (NASA- Cooperation Cooperation Collaboration NOAA) Cost-sharing (NOAA, DOD) CNES: bus, 2 NASA: telescope, main instruments, launch science instrument, Technology infusion and early orbit phase spacecraft bus (NASA) (LEOP), and checkout DOE: fabrication NASA: 3 instruments, of major science launch services instrument, development of science operations NOAA/EUMETSAT: center ground segment Agencies NOAA, DOD, NASA NASA, NOAA, NASA, DOE NASA, DOE Involved EUMETSAT, CNES Governance Integrated Program Developed by NASA, NASA: project office, NASA: lead agency Structure Office (IPO) for CNES and operated by instruments responsible for overall NPOESS NOAA, EUMETSAT success of the mission DOE: instruments DOE: science and operations contribution Project/ Program— Single project Single project Single project Program multiple spacecraft Directed/ Directed Organic Organic Directed Organicb (executive order)

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51 APPENDIX C GOES-R Landsat 7 LDCM C/NOFS ACE United States United States United States United States United States Procurement of Coordination Coordination Coordination Use of resources services NASA: development NASA: development NASA: spacecraft and NOAA: provides and launch of and launch of instruments direct oversight the spacecraft; the spacecraft; for the GOES-R development of the development of the NOAA: small program, flight and ground system ground system ($680,000) contribution ground segment to modify the ACE USGS: operates the USGS: operation spacecraft and enable NASA: procurement, satellite and captures, of the satellite and 24-hour continuous management, and processes, and responsible for a transmission of real- execution of the distributes the data ground system to time data on the solar flight project in and is responsible for receive, ingest, wind accordance with maintaining the data archive, calibrate, overall NOAA archive process, validate, DOD: Air Force ground guidance and distribute LDCM stations science data NASA, NOAA Development: NASA, NASA, USGS Joint USAF Space NASA, NOAA, DOD NOAA, USGS Test Program (STP) and Air Force Operations: NASA, Research Laboratory USGS (AFRL); participation by NASA, NRL, universities, federally funded research and development centers Developed by NASA NASA: spacecraft, NASA: development STP: spacecraft, Managed by NASA for NOAA on a cost- instrument, and of spacecraft launch vehicle, launch reimbursable basis ground system and first year of on- USGS: development orbit operations NOAA: spacecraft and operation of the and ground systems ground system AFRL: payload, operations and payload integration functions and test, model development, data USGS: Landsat data center operations, and distribution and product generation and archiving distribution NASA: CINDI instrument Single project Single project Single project Single project Single project Organic Directed Directed Organic Organic (continued)

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52 ASSESSMENT OF IMPEDIMENTS TO INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION ON SPACE AND EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS TABLE C.1 Continued NPOESSa OSTM/Jason-2 Fermi/GLAST JDEM/Omega Year Started 2006 (spacecraft 2002 September 2010 (Phase A) development) 2000 (SRR) Launch (or 2014 (C-1) June 2008 2006 (ICRR, 2017 Launch 2001) Readiness June 2008 Date) (actual) Number of Originally 6, 1 1 1 Spacecraft now 4 (not including NPP) Number of 7 (C-1), 8 (FOC) 5 2 1 Instruments Initial Budget $76 million (no LV, $454 million ~$900 million NASA only, March FY 2006 (FY 2009) 2006) $76 million (ICRR, 2001) (no LV, NASA only, at launch) Budgetary Significant overrun; Met launch date on $508 million FY 2006 Not yet selected Outcome program descoped: budget (at launch) $6.8 billion through C1, $8 billion through C2 Motivation for Cost: “eliminate the Third in partnership; Similar science goals: Science goals are Collaboration financial redundancy continue measurement GLAST draws on the high priority to both at the Outset of acquiring and record interest of both the organizations; leverage operating polar- high-energy particle each agency’s expertise orbiting environmental physics and high- satellite systems, energy astrophysics while continuing to communities and is the satisfy U.S. operational highest ranked initiative requirement for data in its category in the from these systems” NRC 2000 decadal survey reportd

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53 APPENDIX C GOES-R Landsat 7 LDCM C/NOFS ACE September 2004 1993 (SRR) 2007 At least 2000 1991 (instrument development) October 2005 (preliminary spacecraft design) April 2015 1998 (1993) 2011 (ICR, 2008) 2003 (2001) 1997 (GAO, 2009)c instrument power 2012 (PDR, 2009) supply failures February 2006 during thermal/ (October 2005) vacuum testing; solar panel (18- 1999 (actual) month delay) and EMI probes; rebuilt harness April 2008 (actual) 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 Originally 1, 6 9 now 2 $6.6 billion $652 million Total cost for Phase C/D (ICR, 2008) through launch plus 30 days of checkout not to exceed $141.1 million (in real-year dollars) $7.67 billion (GAO, $718 million (at Still in development, Combined cost of Final project cost 2009)c significant launch, includes $212 has overrun; USGS satellite development $106.8 million, a $34.3 overrun; program million DOD, $6.5 funding shortfalls and construction, million under-run descoped from 4 million USGS) have impacted the Pegasus rocket, satellites/5 sensors ground system and the 13 months of to 2 satellites/ in-space operations 4 sensors total about $135 million (at launch); solar panel design issues slowed the program; instrument RF sensitivities created technical challenges NOAA: procurement Latest partnership NSTC directed NASA: science Merging of NASA of next-generation to continue decades- collaboration to payload access to research interests with GOES spacecraft long record of maintain continuity space as mission of NOAA and Air Force moderate-resolution of Landsat-type data opportunity operational needs for NASA: Possible measurements of the for civil, commercial, real-time data on the transition of GIFTS land surface (see text and national security DOD: means to upstream solar wind and instrument to for details) interests expand scope of forecast and warning of advanced sounder mission through severe space weather for GOES-R hosting NASA-funded events payload; support operational users of space weather information (continued)

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54 ASSESSMENT OF IMPEDIMENTS TO INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION ON SPACE AND EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS TABLE C.1 Continued NPOESSa OSTM/Jason-2 Fermi/GLAST JDEM/Omega Primary See in the main text See in the main text See in the main text See in the main text Sources for the references cited in references cited in the references cited in the references cited in the Committee’s the section “NASA- section “Coordination section “The Gamma- section “The Joint Dark Analysise NOAA Interagency Example: Ocean ray Large Area Space Energy Mission.” Collaboration.” Surface Topography Telescope Mission.” Mission/Jason-2.” a As noted in the text, on February 1, 2010, it was announced that the NPOESS program would be restructured into two separate lines of polar-orbiting satellites to serve military and civilian users. Information in this table refers to the NPOESS program prior to the restructuring. b “Organic” and “directed” are used here to distinguish between agency collaborations that arise mostly from the normal self-interests of the agencies and in which efforts are made to align the structure with normal agency practices and culture (partnerships arise from the bottom up) versus collaborations that arise from external demands, for example, to meet a political objective beyond the agency’s own self-interests or to meet a mission requirement that is externally imposed (partnerships arise from the top down). c Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, GAO Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Statement of David A. Powner, Director, Infor- mation Technology Management Issues,” GAO-09-596T, April 23, 2009. d National Research Council, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010. e For all missions and especially for NPOESS, Fermi/GLAST, and JDEM/Omega, the committee also drew on the substantive knowledge and first-hand experiences of its members. f National Research Council, Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008, available at http://www.nap. edu/catalog.php?record_id=12254.

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55 APPENDIX C GOES-R Landsat 7 LDCM C/NOFS ACE (2008)f NRC See in the main text See in the main text Interview with See in the main text references cited in the references cited in the Roderick Heelis, references cited in section “The Landsat section “The Landsat principal investigator the section “Use of Program.” Program.” for CINDI Resources Example: Space Weather Data from the Advanced Composition Explorer.”