Weapons Council, and the Missile Defense Executive Board. He previously served as commander, U.S. Joint Forces Command; as NATO’s supreme allied commander, transformation; and as senior military assistant to the U.S. Secretary of Defense. ADM Giambastiani was a career nuclear submarine officer who gained extensive operational experience, including command at the submarine, squadron, and fleet levels. His operational assignments included several in which he was responsible for demanding at-sea operations and for the development of new technologies and experimental processes. He commanded Submarine NR-1, the Navy’s only nuclear-powered deep-diving ocean engineering and research submarine, USS Richard B. Russell (SSN-687), and the Submarine Force U.S. Atlantic Fleet. He currently serves on the boards of the Boeing Company, Monster Worldwide, and QinetiQ Group PLC and does independent consulting. In addition, since retirement, he has served on a number of U.S. government advisory boards, investigations, and task forces. He currently serves as chairman of the Secretary of the Navy’s Advisory Panel. ADM Giambastiani graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy with leadership distinction.

David A. Hofmann is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the University of North Carolina’s Kenan-Flagler Business School. Dr. Hofmann conducts research on leadership, organizational and work group safety climates, and organizational factors that affect the safety behavior and performance of individual employees. His research has contributed significantly to the scientific foundation of assessment tools used to evaluate the safety and organizational climates of organizations—such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration after the Columbia accident—and to help plan interventions to improve safety climate. Dr. Hofmann’s research has appeared in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Personnel Psychology. He also has published or has forthcoming numerous book chapters on leadership, safety issues, and multilevel research methods. In 2003, he edited a scholarly book on safety in organizations (Health and Safety in Organizations: A Multilevel Perspective), and he has a second edited book forthcoming on Errors in Organizations. Dr. Hofmann has received the American Psychological Association’s Decade of Behavior Award, the Society of Human Resource Management’s Yoder-Heneman Award, and has been a Fulbright Senior Scholar. Prior to arriving at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, he was a faculty member at Purdue University, Texas A&M University, and Michigan State University. Dr. Hofmann consults, conducts applied research, and leads executive workshops for a variety of governmental organizations and private corporations. He received a doctorate in industrial and organizational psychology from Pennsylvania State University.

Roger L. McCarthy is a private engineering consultant and a director of Shui on Land, Ltd., which is involved in large-scale urban redevelopment in the People’s Republic of China. Dr. McCarthy has substantial experience in the analysis of failures of an engineering or scientific nature. He has investigated the grounding of the Exxon Valdez, the explosion and loss of the Piper Alpha oil platform in the North Sea, the fire and explosion on the semisubmersible Glomar Arctic II, and the rudder failure on the VLCC Amoco Cadiz. Previously, Dr. McCarthy was chairman emeritus of Exponent, Inc., and

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