fundamental data and insights relevant to similar systems both on Earth and in space. This includes information on chemical reaction rates, diffusion coefficients, and radiation coefficients, as well as insights into flame structures, soot formation, and droplet combustion. Furthermore, the production and processing of new materials often involve a vapor or liquid. The examination of crystal growth and solidification processes in reduced gravity can provide new insights into the manner in which a liquid or vapor transforms into a crystal and the accompanying pattern formation processes, such as dendritic and cellular growth.
This chapter presents recommendations for applied physical sciences research that enables space exploration and is enabled by space exploration. These recommendations are based on the expertise of the panel, on approximately 40 white papers submitted by the scientific community, on briefings presented to the panel, and on other documents reviewed by the panel. Chief among these documents were two previous reports from the National Research Council (NRC). The first, Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies,2 known as the HEDS report, contains an extensive discussion of the central role that research in the applied physical sciences plays in enabling space exploration, as well as an encyclopedic survey of important exploration technologies and the physical phenomena underlying these technologies. It discusses many key technology areas, including power generation and storage, space propulsion, life support, hazard control (fire and radiation safety), and materials production and storage. Drawing on the many technologies in these broad areas, the HEDS report also presents extensive background on fluid physics, on topics such as interfacial phenomena, multiphase flow, and heat transfer; combustion and fire safety; and materials. The second report, Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA,3 focuses on research that is enabled by reduced-gravity research platforms supplied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). As with the HEDS report, this assessment contains an expansive discussion of background information and important research questions in fluid physics, combustion, and materials science. Both reports contain additional supporting information that, due to space limitations, is not included in this chapter.
Recommended research portfolios in fluid physics, combustion, and materials science are presented below. In general, to make the most out of each experimental opportunity, research should include a combination of reduced-gravity experiments, numerical simulation, and analysis. The timeline for each of these portfolios was constructed assuming that, over the next 10 years, the International Space Station (ISS) will be available with adequate crew time and up-mass and down-mass capabilities, current ground-based facilities will remain available, and funding will be available to support an expanded research program. As noted below, most of the recommended research should be structured to facilitate the development of related critical technologies, as detailed in Chapter 10, “Translation to Space Exploration Systems” (see Tables 10.3 and 10.4). The rest of the recommended research (i.e., in the areas of complex fluid physics, numerical simulation of combustion, and fundamental materials research) is broadly applicable. Although this research is generally applicable to research topics listed in Tables 10.3 and 10.4, it is not easily focused on the specific critical technologies associated with those topics.
This chapter concludes with a summary of the recommended research, a review of key facilities that will enable recommended research, and a discussion of programmatic recommendations.
The panel considered many interesting NASA-related research issues in fluid mechanics (e.g., aerodynamics, hypersonic flows, and plasma dynamics). This section focuses on the gravity-related research issues of most crucial importance to NASA’s future crewed and uncrewed missions. Areas of particular interest are reduced-gravity multiphase flows, cryogenics, and heat transfer: database and modeling; interfacial flows and phenomena; dynamic granular material behavior; granular subsurface geotechnics; dust mitigation; and fundamental research in complex fluid physics. Each of these fields encompasses a myriad of individual phenomena. The targeted topics, of highest priority for NASA, are both enabling to, and enabled by, NASA’s access to reduced-gravity environments.
As discussed below and in Chapter 10, advances in multiphase flow and heat transfer provide enabling technology for many of NASA’s proposed crewed missions.4 A recent survey of NASA and industry identified high-priority gravity-related challenges such as the following:5 (1) storage and handling of cryogens and other liquids,*
* “Other liquids” includes liquid oxygen, helium, and hydrogen, which are used for breathing, cooling, and propulsion, as well as non-cryogenic fuels such as hydrazine.