7. The efficiency of the proposed research in terms of addressing multiple questions in a single investigation.

8. The impact on furthering fundamental knowledge in relevant fields.

“Enabled-by” research

1. The level of impact on fundamental knowledge.

2. The breadth of impact across a number of disciplines.

3. The likelihood that the research will produce a definitive answer.

4. A reasonable potential that needed resources such as crew time and research platforms could become available.

5. The consumption of program resources compared to what might be consumed by other potential investigations.

6. The contribution to terrestrial value.

7. The efficiency of the proposed research in terms of addressing multiple questions in a single investigation.

8. The impact on enabling space exploration.

The recommended high-priority research areas in applied physical sciences are listed below and in Table 9.1, which also lists current gaps, the specific research recommendations that cover a 20-year period, and the expected research outcomes.

Fluid Physics Recommendations

Reduced-gravity multiphase flows, cryogenics, and heat transfer: database and modeling—NASA should create a detailed reduced-gravity database that includes phase separation and distribution (i.e., flow regimes), phase-change heat transfer, pressure drop, and multiphase system stability. In addition, NASA should support the development and use of direct numerical simulation and molecular simulation techniques (e.g., lattice Boltzmann methods) to improve the understanding of mission-enabling phase distribution, separation, liquid management, and phase-change system phenomena. (AP1)

Interfacial flows and phenomena—NASA should investigate interfacial flows (including induced and spontaneous multiphase and cryogenic flows with or without phase change) relevant to storage and handling systems for cryogens and other liquids, life support systems, power generation, thermal control systems, and other important multiphase systems. (AP2)

Dynamic granular material behavior and granular subsurface geotechnics—NASA should improve predictive capabilities related to the behavior of lunar and martian soils on the surface and at depth, with the ultimate goal of developing site-specific models. This would likely require both the ground-based and ISS testing of actual lunar soils. (AP3)

Dust mitigation—NASA should develop fundamentals-based strategies and methods for dust mitigation during human and robotic exploration of planetary bodies. This should include experimental methods, the understanding of the fundamental physics of dust accumulation and electrostatic interactions, and methods for modeling dust accumulation. (AP4)

Complex fluid physics—NASA should conduct experiments on the ISS leading to an understanding of complex fluid physics in microgravity, particularly with regard to the behavior of granular materials, colloids, foams, nanoslurries, biofluids, plasmas, non-Newtonian fluids, critical-point fluids, and liquid crystals. (AP5)

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