tion on humans. There may be joint-funding opportunities where radiation health issues overlap and results are of mutual interest. DOE has a low-dose radiation program, and NASA cofunds selected projects that it believes will be of scientific benefit. Further, because the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the only site in the United States where biology research with energetic charged particles other than protons can be conducted, and because interest is growing in other countries in the development of charged particles for use in cancer therapy, answers to questions of interest to both NASA and the National Cancer Institute at the NIH might be pursued in an economical manner.

Domestic Examples in the Physical Sciences

DOE and NSF. As an example of the kinds of joint opportunities that could be developed here, there is a growing community of researchers worldwide who are interested in performing carefully conducted laboratory physics experiments that address select obstacles that physics faces today and that will exploit the benefits of a space environment. DOE, NASA, and NSF have jointly funded the recent report of the NRC Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences, which emphasized the significant discovery potential of future space-based experiments using new technologies and laboratory techniques that have the ability to probe the fundamental laws of nature at the highest levels of accuracy.29

DOD. Multiagency support coordinated by DARPA and formulated through joint workshops could lead to significant progress in developing, for example, quantum technologies for space applications that benefit the entire discipline of space-based research in fundamental physics.

Federal Aviation Administration. The Federal Aviation Administration will soon issue an award for a Center of Excellence for Commercial Space Transportation. As a result, there may be numerous opportunities for synergistic research projects.

Opportunities for International Collaborations

Because opportunities available for space-based experiments are extremely limited, significant collaboration with various international partners could avoid duplication of experimental capabilities in proposed experiments and ensure facilities are used to the maximum extent possible at the lowest cost. Collaboration with international agencies such as ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) could provide a coherent, defensible, research program that maximizes the experimental, analytical, and numerical capabilities of researchers worldwide.

As just one example of a successful international collaboration, the recent Super Critical Water Oxidation research at NASA Glenn Research Center has provided the basis of a new flight investigation on the ISS. A team of scientists at Glenn Research Center has partnered with scientists from the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales and the Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry at Bordeaux of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in an investigation entitled the Supercritical Water Mixture experiment. The experiment is scheduled to be performed in the DECLIC2 facility on the ISS early in calendar year 2011.

Information on international project collaborations between NASA and ESA to design and build unique pieces of equipment for skeletal muscle and sensory-motor function testing has been produced by the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System project. Several bed rest studies were sponsored by both ESA and NASA, including the Women’s International Space Simulation Exploration study.

Promoting National and International Synergies

The following are examples of strategies that could be used to promote multinational efforts and synergies in biological and physical sciences space research.

• Hold joint workshops, including webinars.

• Have members of other agencies on peer-review teams.

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