auxin plant hormone thought to play a key role in regulating plant growth responses to gravity; in addition it regulates many other developmental processes in plants
AVP arginine vasopressin

BDCF Baseline Data Collection Facility (at NASA Kennedy Space Center)
BEC Bose-Einstein condensate, at a temperature near absolute zero, atoms behave as a “superatom”
biofilm complex aggregation of different microbes growing on a surface, generally living within a matrix of secreted compounds
biofuel gas or liquid fuel produced from biomass, the biological materials produced by living organisms
biomolecule chemical compound found in living organisms
Bion Russian space capsule that can support animals (e.g., monkeys, rats) and insects in orbit for up to 3 weeks
bioregenerative life support life support system based on biological components designed to regenerate air and water and produce food to sustain crew members on extended missions
bisphosphonate a pharmaceutical drug to prevent bone loss
BMD bone mineral density
BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory
boiling curve plot of heat flux versus the difference between (a) the temperature of the wall where heat is being added to a boiling liquid and (b) the temperature of the liquid
Brayton cycle a thermodynamic cycle used for power generation that features high conversion efficiency and a single-phase working fluid but with the drawback of relatively low heat-rejection temperatures, requiring relatively large and massive radiators
buoyant convection a form of convection in which the movement of the working fluid (gas or liquid) is caused by density differences at different points in the fluid; also referred as natural or free convection; see also forced convection

CADMOS Centre d’Aide au Développement des activités en Micro-pesanteur et des Operations Spatiales (operated by CNES)
carbon nanotubes hollow tubes that are made of pure carbon and are just a few nanometers in diameter
CCDev Commercial Crew Development (NASA contract)
CD4/CD8 subgroups of immune cells used to fight infection
cellular solidification a mode of solidification that (1) forms a fine-grained material (compared, for example, to dendritic solidification) and (2) facilitates close control of the microstructures within the material, in part because the direction of growth is determined by the direction of heat flow within the material as it solidifies and not by crystallographic properties of the material

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