Recapturing a Future
for Space Exploration

Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era

Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space

Space Studies Board

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space Space Studies Board Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study is based on work supported by Contracts NNH05CC16C and NNH10CC48B between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-3: 978-0-309-16384-2 International Standard Book Number-0: 0-309-16384-6 Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Wash - ington, DC 20055; (800) 624-2422 or (202) 334-3133 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in sci - entific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad com - munity of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the gov - ernment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.nationalacademies.org

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OTHER RECENT REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD AND THE AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions (Space Studies Board [SSB], 2011) Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (BPA and SSB, 2011) Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 [prepublication version] (SSB, 2011) Advancing Aeronautical Safety: A Review of NASA’s Aviation Safety-Related Research Programs (Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2010) Capabilities for the Future: An Assessment of NASA Laboratories for Basic Research (Laboratory Assessments Board [LAB] with SSB and ASEB, 2010) Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions (SSB, 2010) Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth-Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies (SSB with ASEB, 2010) An Enabling Foundation for NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions (SSB, 2010) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2010) New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Board on Physics and Astronomy [BPA] and SSB, 2010) Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey [prepublica - tion version] (BPA and SSB, 2010) Revitalizing NASA’s Suborbital Program: Advancing Science, Driving Innovation, and Developing a Workforce (SSB, 2010) America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs (SSB with ASEB, 2009) Approaches to Future Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2009) An Assessment of NASA’s National Aviation Operations Monitoring Service (ASEB, 2009) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions (SSB, 2009) Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (ASEB, 2009) Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2009) A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Heliophysics Program (SSB, 2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2009) Assessing the Research and Development Plan for the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Summary of a Workshop (ASEB, 2008) A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Pro - gram (ASEB, 2008) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (SSB, 2008) Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration (ASEB, 2008) NASA Aeronautics Research: An Assessment (ASEB, 2008) Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (SSB, 2008) Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program: An Interim Report (ASEB, 2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (SSB, 2008) Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2008) United States Civil Space Policy: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity (ASEB, 2008) Limited copies of SSB reports are available free of charge from Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-4777/ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html iv

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COMMITTEE FOR THE DECADAL SURVEY ON BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Co-chair WENDY M. KOHRT, University of Colorado, Denver, Co-chair LARS BERGLUND, University of California, Davis NICHOLAS P. BIGELOW, University of Rochester LEONARD H. CAVENY, Independent Consultant, Fort Washington, Maryland VIJAY K. DHIR, University of California, Los Angeles JOEL E. DIMSDALE, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS, Worcester Polytechnic Institute SIMON GILROY, University of Wisconsin-Madison BENJAMIN D. LEVINE, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas RODOLFO R. LLINAS,* New York University Medical Center KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University PHILIPPA MARRACK,† National Jewish Health GABOR A. SOMORJAI, University of California, Berkeley CHARLES M. TIPTON, University of Arizona JOSE L. TORERO, University of Edinburgh, Scotland ROBERT WEGENG, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine ANIMAL AND HUMAN BIOLOGY PANEL KENNETH M. BALDWIN, University of California, Irvine, Chair FRANÇOIS M. ABBOUD, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine PETER R. CAVANAGH, University of Washington V. REGGIE EDGERTON, University of California, Los Angeles DONNA MURASKO, Drexel University JOHN T. POTTS, JR., Massachusetts General Hospital APRIL E. RONCA, Wake Forest University School of Medicine CHARLES M. TIPTON, University of Arizona CHARLES H. TURNER,‡ Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis JOHN B. WEST, University of California, San Diego APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES PANEL PETER W. VOORHEES, Northwestern University, Chair NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS, Worcester Polytechnic Institute RICHARD T. LAHEY, JR., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute RICHARD M. LUEPTOW, Northwestern University JOHN J. MOORE, Colorado School of Mines ELAINE S. ORAN, Naval Research Laboratory AMY L. RECHENMACHER, University of Southern California JAMES S. T’IEN, Case Western Reserve University MARK M. WEISLOGEL, Portland State University * Through mid-December 2009. † Through mid-May 2010. ‡ Deceased July 2010. v

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FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL SCIENCES PANEL ROBERT V. DUNCAN, University of Missouri, Chair NICHOLAS P. BIGELOW, University of Rochester PAUL M. CHAIKIN, New York University RONALD G. LARSON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Boulder RONALD WALSWORTH, Harvard University HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH PANEL THOMAS J. BALKIN, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Chair JOEL E. DIMSDALE, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine NICK KANAS, University of California, San Francisco GLORIA R. LEON, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis LAWRENCE A. PALINKAS, University of Southern California MRIGANKA SUR,§ Massachusetts Institute of Technology INTEGRATIVE AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH FOR THE HUMAN SYSTEMS PANEL JAMES A. PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University, Chair ALAN R. HARGENS, University of California, San Diego ROBERT L. HELMREICH, University of Texas, Austin (retired) JOANNE R. LUPTON, Texas A&M University, College Station CHARLES M. OMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID ROBERTSON, Vanderbilt University SUZANNE M. SCHNEIDER, University of New Mexico GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine PLANT AND MICROBIAL BIOLOGY PANEL TERRI L. LOMAX, North Carolina State University, Chair PAUL BLOUNT, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas ROBERT J. FERL, University of Florida SIMON GILROY, University of Wisconsin-Madison E. PETER GREENBERG, University of Washington School of Medicine TRANSLATION TO SPACE EXPLORATION SYSTEMS PANEL JAMES P. BAGIAN, U.S. Air Force and University of Michigan, Chair FREDERICK R. BEST, Texas A&M University, College Station DAVID C. BYERS,§ Independent Consultant, Torrance, California LEONARD H. CAVENY, Independent Consultant, Fort Washington, Maryland MICHAEL B. DUKE, Colorado School of Mines (retired) JOHN P. KIZITO, North Carolina A&T State University DAVID Y. KUSNIERKIEWICZ, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory E. THOMAS MAHEFKEY, JR., Heat Transfer Technology Consultants DAVA J. NEWMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology § Through mid-December 2009. vi

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RICHARD J. ROBY, Combustion Science and Engineering, Inc. GUILLERMO TROTTI, Trotti and Associates, Inc. ALAN WILHITE, Georgia Institute of Technology STAFF SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board, Study Director ALAN C. ANGLEMAN, Senior Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board IAN W. PRYKE, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board ROBERT L. RIEMER,¶ Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy MAUREEN MELLODY, Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board REGINA NORTH, Consultant, Washington, D.C. CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor, Space Studies Board LEWIS GROSWALD, Research Associate, Space Studies Board DANIELLE JOHNSON-BLAND,¶ Senior Program Assistant, Committee on Law and Justice LAURA TOTH,¶ Senior Program Assistant, National Materials Advisory Board LINDA M. WALKER, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ERIC WHITAKER,¶ Senior Program Assistant, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Space Studies Board, and Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board ¶ Staff from other National Research Council boards who assisted with the survey. vii

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SPACE STUDIES BOARD CHARLES F. KENNEL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Chair JOHN KLINEBERG, Space Systems/Loral (retired), Vice Chair MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN, Dixie State College and Aerospace Corporation ALAN DRESSLER, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research HEIDI B. HAMMEL, Space Science Institute FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology ANTHONY C. JANETOS, University of Maryland JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE, Naval War College ROBERT P. LIN, University of California, Berkeley MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future JOHN F. MUSTARD, Brown University ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research CLIFFORD M. WILL, Washington University THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN, University of Michigan MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (from April 1, 2010) RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2, 2009, to March 31, 2010) MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (until March 1, 2009) CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant viii

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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired), Chair LESTER LYLES, The Lyles Group, Vice Chair ELLA M. ATKINS, University of Michigan AMY L. BUHRIG, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group INDERJIT CHOPRA, University of Maryland, College Park JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology RAVI B. DEO, EMBR VIJAY DHIR, University of California, Los Angeles EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University MICA R. ENDSLEY, SA Technologies DAVID GOLDSTON, Harvard University R. JOHN HANSMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN B. HAYHURST, Boeing Company (retired) WILLIAM L. JOHNSON, California Institute of Technology RICHARD KOHRS, Independent Consultant IVETT LEYVA, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base ELAINE S. ORAN, Naval Research Laboratory ALAN G. POINDEXTER, Naval Postgraduate School HELEN R. REED, Texas A&M University ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University EDMOND SOLIDAY, United Airlines (retired) MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (from April 1, 2010) RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2, 2009, to March 31, 2010) MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (until March 1, 2009) CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant ix

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Preface In May 2009, the National Research Council’s (NRC) Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space began a series of meetings initiated as a result of the following language in the explana - tory statement accompanying the FY 2008 Omnibus Appropriations Act (P.L. 110-161): Achieving the goals of the Exploration Initiative will require a greater understanding of life and physical sciences phenomena in microgravity as well as in the partial gravity environments of the Moon and Mars. Therefore, the Administrator is directed to enter into an arrangement with the National Research Council to conduct a “decadal survey” of life and physical sciences research in microgravity and partial gravity to establish priorities for research for the 2010-020 decade. In response to this language, a statement of task for an NRC study was developed in consultation with mem - bers of the life and physical sciences communities, NASA, and congressional staff. The guiding principle of the study was to set an agenda for research in the next decade that would use the unique characteristics of the space environment to address complex problems in the life and physical sciences, so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as it embarks on a new era of space exploration. Specifically, the decadal survey committee was asked to define research areas, recommend a research portfolio and a timeline for conducting that research, identify facility and platform requirements as appropriate, provide rationales for suggested program elements, define dependencies among research objectives, identify terrestrial benefits, and specify whether the results of the research would directly enable exploration or would produce fundamental new knowledge. The research areas identified were to be categorized as either (1) required to enable exploration missions or (2) enabled or facilitated because of exploration missions. The complete statement of task for the study is given in Appendix A of this report. As one of its earliest tasks, the committee divided the broad spectrum of relevant disciplines and charge ele - ments into seven broad focus areas and organized the following study panels to address each theme: • Animal and Human Biology Panel, • Applied Physical Sciences Panel, • Fundamental Physical Sciences Panel, • Human Behavior and Mental Health Panel, • Integrative and Translational Research for Human Systems Panel, xi

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xii PREFACE • Plant and Microbial Biology Panel, and • Translation to Space Exploration Systems Panel. The level of integration between the committee and the panels, and among many of the panels, was excep - tionally high throughout the study. In general, the panels had primary responsibility for gathering data on the status of the relevant research areas, performing analysis, and developing a chapter in their assigned theme area; the committee provided continuous direction and feedback to the panels, integrated the input of the panels, and developed the chapters that responded directly to the statement of task. The report is thus the product of the com - mittee’s and the panels’ combined efforts. In addition to the expertise embodied in the committee and the panels, broad community input was provided to the study at town hall meetings held in conjunction with professional society meetings, in approximately 150 white papers submitted by individuals and teams from the community, * and through numerous briefings and direct exchanges. Based on these inputs and its own deliberations, the com - mittee in conjunction with the panels reviewed those areas of research that seemed most promising and selected the research topics and themes that are discussed in this report. Although decadal surveys are a long-standing tradition in many other fields supported by NASA, such as astronomy and planetary science, this report represents the first decadal survey of NASA’s life and physical sci - ences programs. In preparing it, the committee and its panels drew heavily on a number of past NRC studies that looked at many of the disciplines represented in this study. Two such reports were considered foundation docu - ments on which the current study has built but whose work it does not reproduce: The 1998 NRC report A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century provided a detailed assessment of the impact of spaceflight on the minds and physiological systems of humans, as well as effects in plants and animals. The 2006 NRC report Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies examined the new capabilities that NASA would have to develop in order to explore the solar system and identified the underlying physical processes on which these capabilities depended. Both reports describe the phenomenological changes that occur—in biological systems and physical processes—at a level of detail that the current report does not attempt to replicate. Readers interested in better understanding these processes are referred to the two earlier studies. This full survey report was preceded by the committee’s interim report, released in July 2010, titled Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (http://www.nap.edu/catalog. php?record_id=12944). Drawing on preliminary analyses performed by the committee and its panels, that report provided guidance on near-term programmatic issues related to the organization and management of the life and physical sciences research enterprise at NASA. It also identified a number of broad topics that represent near-term opportunities for research on the International Space Station. The guidance in the interim report is incorporated into the more detailed examination of programmatic issues and research needs for all platforms in this full report. * Available at http://www8.nationalacademies.org/SSBSurvey/PublicViewMicro.aspx.

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Andreas Acrivos, City College of the City University of New York; Robert L. Ash, Old Dominion University; Henry W. Brandhorst, Jr., Carbon-Free Energy, LLC; Edward J. Britt, Pratt & Whitney Space Propulsion; Jay C. Buckey, Jr., Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center; Jonathan B. Clark, National Space Biomedical Research Institute; Michael E. Fisher, University of Maryland; Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan; F. Andrew Gaffney, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine; Kurt Gibble, Pennsylvania State University; Roger Hangarter, Indiana University; Kathryn D. Held, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School; Edward W. Hodgson, Jr., Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation; George M. Homsy, University of British Columbia; Mamoru Ishii, Purdue University; David M. Klaus, University of Colorado, Boulder; Richard H. Kohrs, NASA (retired); Rodolfo R. Llinas, New York University Medical Center; Jay S. Loeffler, Massachusetts General Hospital; David E. Longnecker, Association of American Medical Colleges; Robert Marcus, Independent Consultant and Eli Lilly and Company (retired); xiii

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xiv ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS Gail Martin, University of California, San Francisco; Ralph Napolitano, Iowa State University; Robert J. Naumann, University of Alabama, Huntsville; Mary Jane Osborn, University of Connecticut Health Center; William Paloski, University of Houston; G. Kim Prisk, University of California, San Diego; Emery I. Reeves, Independent Consultant and U.S. Air Force Academy (retired); Danny A. Riley, Medical College of Wisconsin; Gerald Sonnenfeld, Clemson University; T. Peter Stein, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; Thomas G. Stoebe, University of Washington; Pete Suedfeld, University of British Columbia (emeritus); Peter B. Sunderland, University of Maryland; George W. Swenson, Jr., University of Illinois; Scott Tremaine, Institute for Advanced Study; Russell Turner, Oregon State University; Forman A. Williams, University of California, San Diego; Eugene Wissler, University of Texas, Austin; and A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University, and Laurence R. Young, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 11 The Exploration Imperative, 11 Study Context, Challenges, and Organization, 13 Organization of This Report, 13 References, 15 2 REVIEW OF NASA’S PROGRAM EVOLUTION IN THE LIFE 17 AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN LOW-GRAVITY AND MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENTS Origin of the Research Program, 17 Evolution of the Research Mission, 18 The Apollo Program and Skylab, 18 Dedicated Life Sciences Missions on the Shuttle, 19 Dedicated Physical Sciences Missions on the Shuttle, 20 Current Status and Potential of the Life and Physical Sciences Research Programs, 20 References, 21 3 CONDUCTING MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH: U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL FACILITIES 23 International Space Station, 24 Facility-Class Payloads, 25 U.S. Partner ISS Facilities and Modules, 28 Laboratory Support Equipment, 29 Major ISS Facilities by Discipline, 29 Global Space Transportation Systems, 34 United States, 34 Russia, 36 Europe, 36 Japan, 37 xv

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xvi CONTENTS Free-Flyers, 37 United States, 37 Europe, 37 Ground-Based Facilities, 38 General Types by Field of Research, 38 U.S. Ground-based Facilities, 39 European Ground-Based Facilities, 45 Russian Ground-Based Facilities, 49 Japanese Ground-Based Facilities, 49 Chinese Ground-Based Facilities, 50 References, 50 4 PLANT AND MICROBIAL BIOLOGY 57 The Role of Plant and Microbial Research in Exploring the Effects of Microgravity, 57 Research Issues, 58 Overview: The Need for Modern Analyses Applied to Model Systems, 58 Sensory Mechanisms I: Gravity Sensing and Response Mechanisms in Plants, 58 Sensory Mechanisms II: Gravity and Mechanical Sensing in Microbes, 60 Sensory Mechanisms III: Cells, 62 Radiation Effects on Plants and Microbes, 63 Plant and Microbial Growth Under Altered Atmospheric Pressures, 63 Spaceflight Syndrome I: Response to the Integrated Spaceflight Environment, 64 Spaceflight Syndrome II: Microbial Ecosystems and Environments, 65 Spaceflight Syndrome III: Changes in the Virulence of Pathogens, 66 Role of Plants and Microbes in Long-Term Life Support Systems, 67 Available and Needed Platforms, 69 Ground-Based Facilities, 69 Flight Platforms, 69 The Lunar Surface as a Platform, 70 Enabling Technologies, 71 Prioritized Research Recommendations, 71 Programmatic Issues and Recommendations, 73 References, 75 5 BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH 81 Cognitive Functioning, 82 Cognitive Testing, 82 Specific Recommendations, 83 Individual Functioning, 84 Selection, 84 Personality Measures, 84 Training, 85 Psychological Symptoms, 85 Therapeutic Strategies, 86 Specific Recommendations, 87 Group Functioning, 88 Individual Factors, 89 Interpersonal Factors, 89 Autonomy and Other Environmentally Mediated Factors, 90 Leadership, 90

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xvii CONTENTS Tools and Facilities, 90 Interventions, 90 Training, 90 Specific Recommendations, 91 Sleep and Space, 91 Effects of Acute Sleep Loss, 92 Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction, 92 Sleep and Resilience, 93 Specific Recommendations, 94 Highest-Priority Recommendations, 94 References, 95 6 ANIMAL AND HUMAN BIOLOGY 99 Research Issues, 100 Risks for Bone Loss During Long-Duration Space Missions, 100 Risks for Skeletal Muscle During Long-Duration Spaceflight, 106 Risks for Sensory-Motor and Vestibular Deficits During Long-Duration Spaceflight, 114 Effects of the Spaceflight Environment on Fluid Shifts, 119 Risks for the Cardiovascular System During Long-Duration Spaceflight, 125 Risks for Pulmonary Function During Long-Duration Space Missions, 136 Risks for Specific Endocrine Influences During Long-Duration Space Missions, 138 Effects of the Spaceflight Environment on the Immune System, 145 Reproduction and Development, 149 Merging of Disciplines to Study Gravity-Dependent Adaptations, 154 Research Priorities and Platforms, 156 Bone, 157 Skeletal Muscle, 157 Sensory-Motor Function, 158 Fluid Shifts, 158 Cardiovascular Function, 158 Pulmonary Function, 159 Immunology, 159 Reproduction and Development, 160 Research Platforms, 160 Overarching and Programmatic Issues, 161 The Need for Animal Research on the ISS and Other Space Platforms, 161 Recommendation Concerning the National Laboratory, 162 Animal Research on Other Platforms, 162 Improved Access to Biological Samples and Data from Astronauts, 163 Limitations of Ground-Based Facilities, 163 Limitations on Sample Delivery Back to Earth, 163 Space Platform for Research Beyond 2020 Will Be Needed, 163 Relevance of the Report to NASA Fundamental Space Biology Strategic Planning, 164 References, 165 7 CROSSCUTTING ISSUES FOR HUMANS IN THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT 205 Solving Integrative Biomedical Problems Through Translational Research, 206 Stress—Physical and Physiological Considerations, 206 Food, Nutrition, and Energy Balance, 213 Radiation Biology, 217

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xviii CONTENTS Physical Inactivity, 221 Biological Sex/Gender Considerations, 222 Thermoregulation, 225 Increasing Translational Research in the Space/Life Sciences, 229 Implementation of a Clinical and Translational Science Framework, 229 The ISS and the U.S. National Laboratory as an Analog of a CTSA Clinical Research Unit, 231 Aspects of Clinical and Translational Science Applicable to Space Biomedical Research, 232 Overarching Issues and Gaps in the Knowledge Base, 233 Educating the Next Generation of Space Translational Scientists, 233 The Procurement Process and Its Effect on Flight Research, 234 International Collaboration Between Space Agencies, 234 Summary, 235 Stress, 235 Food, Nutrition, and Energy Balance, 236 Radiation Biology, 236 Biological Sex/Gender, 237 Thermoregulation, 237 Overarching Issue—Integrated Countermeasures Development, 237 References, 238 8 FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE 249 Research Issues, 250 Thrust I: Soft-Condensed-Matter Physics and Complex Fluids, 250 Thrust II: Precision Measurements of Fundamental Forces and Symmetries, 251 Thrust III: Quantum Gases, 253 Thrust IV: Condensed Matter and Critical Phenomena, 256 Available and Needed Platforms, 258 Ground-Based Research, 258 Aircraft and Drop Towers, 258 The International Space Station, 258 Free-Flying Spacecraft, 259 Lunar or Martian Bases, 259 Program Recommendations for Experiment-Specific Support Facilities on Various Platforms, 259 Research Program Recommendations, 260 Recommended Program Element 1: Research on Complex Fluids and Soft Matter (FP1), 260 Recommended Program Element 2: Research That Tests and Expands Understanding of the Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of Nature (FP2), 261 Recommended Program Element 3: Research Related to the Physics and Applications of Quantum Gases (FP3), 261 Recommended Program Element 4: Investigations of Matter in the Vicinity of Critical Points (FP4), 261 Programmatic Conclusions, Findings, and Recommendations, 261 References, 262 9 APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES 265 Fluid Physics, 266 Research in Support of NASA’s Exploration Missions, 268 Fundamental Research in Complex Fluid Physics, 272 Recommended Research in Fluid Physics, 273

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xix CONTENTS Combustion, 274 Research in Support of NASA’s Exploration Missions, 275 Fundamental Combustion Research, 275 Recommended Research in Combustion, 279 Materials Science, 280 Research in Support of NASA’s Exploration Missions, 280 Fundamental Materials Research, 283 Recommended Research in Materials Science, 285 Research Prioritization and Recommendations, 285 Fluid Physics Recommendations, 286 Combustion Recommendations, 287 Materials Science Recommendations, 287 Facilities, 287 Programmatic Recommendations, 291 References, 292 10 TRANSLATION TO SPACE EXPLORATION SYSTEMS 299 Research Issues and Technology Needs, 300 Space Power and Thermal Management, 300 Space Propulsion, 310 Extravehicular Activity Systems, 317 Life Support Systems, 323 Fire Safety, 325 Space Resource Extraction, Processing, and Utilization, 330 Planetary Surface Construction, 335 Summary and Conclusions, 345 References, 346 11 THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION 355 Unique Status and Capabilities, 355 Areas of Research on the International Space Station, 356 Life Sciences Research on the ISS, 356 Physical Sciences Research on the ISS, 358 Utilizing the ISS for Research, 359 Caveats, 359 References, 360 12 ESTABLISHING A LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH PROGRAM: 361 PROGRAMMATIC ISSUES Programmatic Issues for Strengthening the Research Enterprise, 362 Elevating the Priority of Life and Physical Sciences Research in Space Exploration, 362 Establishing a Stable and Sufficient Funding Base, 364 Improving the Process for Solicitation and Review of High-Quality Research, 367 Rejuvenating a Strong Pipeline of Intellectual Capital Through Training and Mentoring Programs, 368 Linking Science to Mission Capabilities Through Multidisciplinary Translational Programs, 369 Developing Commercial Sector Interactions to Advance Science, Technology, and Economic Growth, 372 Synergies with Other National and International Agencies, 373

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xx CONTENTS Administrative Oversight of Life and Physical Sciences Research, 375 Summary, 375 References, 376 13 ESTABLISHING A LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH PROGRAM: 379 AN INTEGRATED MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH PORTFOLIO Prioritizing Research, 380 Facility and Platform Requirements, 382 Ground-Based Research Platforms, 382 Analog Environments, 392 Flight Platforms, 392 Planetary or Lunar Surfaces as Platforms, 392 Space Platforms for Research Beyond 2020, 393 Highest-Priority Research Areas and Objectives, 393 Research Portfolio Selection Options, 393 Timeline for the Conduct of Research, 396 Impact of Science on Defining U.S. Space Exploration Policy, 397 References, 397 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 401 B Glossary and Selected Acronyms 403 C Committee, Panel, and Staff Biographical Information 421