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TABLE F-8 Evidence Map for Bone Health

Indicator

Mechanistic Data

Animal Data

Observational Studies

Randomized Trials

Primary Outcome

Secondary or Non–Pre-specified Outcomesa

Calcium absorption

Calcium balance

BMD/BMC

Fracture risk

Osteomalacia/rickets

Intermediate

Mechanistic Data

Animal Data

Observational Studies

Randomized Trials

Primary Outcome

Secondary or Non–Pre-specified Outcomesa

25OHD

PTH

NOTE: Data may reflect studies designed to study combined calcium and vitamin D administration, calcium alone, or vitamin D alone. = evidence is published; — = no available evidence.

aSecondary outcomes often were not pre-specified by the investigators.



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