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Serum Calcium

Serum 25(OH)D

Symptoms/Health Effects



Edema and albuminuria



Response from editor: A toxic dose of more than 200,000 units would only be achieved with ingestion of 2.65 L cod liver oil/d

18–19 mg/dL


All presented with anorexia, weight loss, weakness; 2 infants recovered within 6–9 mo following removal of vitamin D; 2 infants died: autopsy showed fibrotic changes in vascular tissue, calcification of other tissues was noted, particularly lung



Both cases presented with anorexia, diarrhea, and vomiting

10.5 mg/dL

129 ng/ml


10.5 mg/dL

126 ng/ml


19.5 mg/dL


Calcium phosphate crystals in urine; bilateral medullary nephrocalcinosis; vomiting and lethargy; both pts recovered without incident

17.6 mg/dL




Extreme thirst, hypercalcemia, symptoms of diabetes insipidus

17.2 mg/dL

635 ng/ml

Leg pain, cessation of growth resulting from bone resorption; serum calcium, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Tx with Ca-free dialysate failed to reduce serum Ca; prednisolone for 7 d; calcitonin tx stabilized serum Ca

17 mg/dL


Nausea and non-tender lumps over both tibias; X-rays showed alternating patterns of increased and decreased bone density. Loss of bone density and tissue calcification continued despite removal of vitamin D and the pt died

14.4 mg/dL

470 ng/ml

Constipation and colic; persistent hypertension; no renal, cardiac, neurological symptoms noted. Acute toxicity treated with furosemide, calcitonin, and hydrocortisol

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