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Adults, 19 through 30 years

bone health, 218, 242, 270, 382383, 384

calcium, 7, 39, 54, 269, 349, 355, 421424, 464, 465, 466, 467, 1104, 1108, 1114

DRI development, 24, 355356, 387389, 393394, 421422, 423424, 443445

EARs, 7, 9, 349, 355, 387388, 389, 393, 394, 464, 469, 11041105

elements, 11081109, 11141115

macronutrients, 11101111

RDAs, 7, 9, 349, 355, 387388, 389, 393, 394, 464, 469, 11061110

ULs, 7, 9, 421, 423, 443, 445, 464, 469, 11121115

vitamin D, 9, 95, 387389, 393394, 443445, 469, 470473, 475, 1106, 1112

vitamins, 11061107, 11121113

water, total, 1110

Adults, 31 through 50 years

bone health, 218219, 242, 382383, 384

calcium, 7, 39, 5455, 349, 355356, 421424, 464, 465, 466, 467, 1104, 1108, 1114

DRI development, 2425, 355356, 387389, 393394, 421424, 443445

EARs, 7, 9, 349, 355, 387388, 389, 464, 469, 11041105

elements, 11081109, 11141115

macronutrients, 11101111

RDAs, 7, 9, 349, 355, 387388, 389, 464, 469, 11061110

ULs, 7, 9, 421, 423, 443, 445, 464, 469, 11121115

vitamin D, 9, 9596, 387389, 393394, 443445, 469, 470473, 475, 1106, 1112

vitamins, 11061107, 11121113

water, total, 1110

Adults, 51 through 70 years

bone health, 219, 226234, 235, 382383, 384

calcium, 7, 349, 356359, 421423, 463464, 465, 466, 467, 480481, 1104, 1108, 1114

dementia, 183

DRI development, 2425, 355356, 389, 421423, 443445

EARs, 7, 9, 167, 349, 356, 357, 359, 387388, 389, 392, 393, 394, 464, 469, 11041105

elements, 11081109, 11141115

macronutrients, 11101111

RDAs, 7, 9, 349, 356, 357, 359, 387388, 389, 393, 394, 464, 469, 11061110

ULs, 7, 9, 421, 423, 443, 445, 464, 469, 11121115

vitamin D, 9, 389, 392394, 443445, 469, 470473, 475, 1106, 1112

vitamins, 11061107, 11121113

water, total, 1110

Adults, 70+ years.

See also Elderly population

bone health, 219, 226234, 235, 360, 382383, 384, 439

calcium, 7, 349, 356, 359361, 421423, 464465, 466, 467, 1104, 1108, 1114

cognitive function, 183, 185186

DRI development, 359361, 389392, 443445

EARs, 7, 9, 349, 356, 360361, 389, 392, 464, 469, 11041105

elements, 11081109, 11141115

macronutrients, 11101111

RDAs, 7, 9, 349, 356, 361, 389390, 392, 464, 469, 11061110

ULs, 7, 9, 421, 423, 443, 445, 464, 469, 11121115

vitamin D, 9, 389392, 439, 443445, 469, 470473, 475, 1106, 1112

vitamins, 11061107, 11121113

water, total, 1110

Adverse effects

calcium, 22, 42, 404, 405424, 481, 488, 500501

chronic, vs. acute toxicity, 404

due to nutrient deficiency. See Calcium, deficiency;

Phosphorus, deficiency;

Vitamin D, deficiency

ethical issues, 404, 425, 488, 518

indicators. See Indicators of adverse outcomes for excess intake

research needs, 517518

in risk assessment approach to DRI development, 27, 403, 515

use in determination of benchmark intake, 17, 418

vitamin D, 6, 10, 404, 405, 424440, 486, 488



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